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London, Great Britain
Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Movie
Billions of individuals will see London through many different filters and lenses during the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Nothing of these views will appear that can compare with that one through the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite.
The image above shows London therefore the southern 50 % of the uk whilst showed up on the night of March 27, 2012. While most regarding the activities in the 2012 Olympics are held in greater London location, several other towns and towns will host events, including: canoeing at Lee Valley White Water Center; cruising in Weymouth and Portland; rowing and canoeing at Eton Dorney; and biking and hill bike occasions at Hadleigh Farm.
The picture had been obtained by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi NPP, which include a “day-night band” comparable to photos gathered by the Operational Linescan System (OLS) flown on U.S. Defense Meterological Satellite plan (DMSP) satellites.
The day-night band observes light in a variety of wavelengths from green to near-infrared, and makes use of light intensification to allow the detection of dim signals, relating to Chris Elvidge, which leads the Earth Observation Group at NOAA’s nationwide Geophysical Data Center and deals with the VIIRS team.
“In wavelength-speak, the number for noticeable light is all about 400 (blue light) to 700 (red light) nanometers, in addition to day/night band’s sensitiveness is 500 to 900 nanometers,” said Steve Miller, a researcher when you look at the Cooperative Institute for analysis inside Atmosphere at Colorado State University. “There tend to be a lot of satellites up there with sensitivity for this exact same range, although unique benefit of the day/night musical organization is its large sensitivity to low levels of this light. It can feel light 100,000 times fainter compared to old-fashioned noticeable light sensors. That makes it very sensitive to such things as moonlight, city lights, among a number of other things.”
The evening views of world are more than just a novelty. “Nightime lights would be the minimum ambiguous remote sensing observation showing the presence and magnitude of real human tasks therefore the density of development,” said Elvidge. Seeing Earth’s evening lighting effects has practical programs in studying person populations, financial activity, habitat fragmentation and encroachment, and energy use. “We can actually check locations and inform you simply how much energy sources are coming from them,” Miller added, “something pretty useful for energy usage researches.”
Various other scientists utilize the nighttime views to select sites for astronomical observatories, learn the impact of nocturnal illumination, also to monitor energy outages and normal disasters. In meteorology, the blend of VIIRS nighttime views and thermal imaging is valuable for such things as distinguishing high clouds from low clouds from fog banking institutions.
Suomi NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on October 28, 2011, and it is caused by a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric management, and also the Department of Defense.
Publisher’s Note: The lights within the Irish water, the English Channel, additionally the North Sea are likely a blend of fishing vessels and flares from offshore gas and oil platforms.
NASA Earth Observatory picture by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, making use of VIIRS Day evening Band and MODIS Blue Marble data. Caption by Michael Carlowicz.
Instrument: Suomi NPP – VIIRS
NASA visits the Olympics – View all of the towns which have hosted the current Summer Olympics, you start with Athens in 1896 thru London in 2012. There has been 29 summertime Olympic Games presented in 22 different locations. Saying host metropolitan areas consist of Athens, Paris, London and l . a ..
Credit: NASA World Observatory
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center makes it possible for NASA’s goal through four clinical endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar program Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading part in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing persuasive medical understanding to advance the Agency’s goal.
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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Photomontage of SR-71 regarding the slot side
Image by Chris Devers
Posted via e-mail to ☛ HoloChromaCinePhotoRamaScope‽: cdevers.posterous.com/panoramas-of-the-sr-71-blackbird-at…. See the complete gallery on Posterous …
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No reconnaissance aircraft ever features run globally much more hostile airspace or with these types of complete impunity compared to the SR-71, the planet’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and functional accomplishments put it within peak of aviation technology developments through the cool War.
This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of trip time during 24 many years of energetic service using U.S. Air energy. On its last journey, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida put a speed record by traveling from l . a . to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 moments, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. During the flight’s summary, they arrived at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the aircraft over to the Smithsonian.
Moved through the United States Air Force.
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson
Nation of Origin:
United States of America
Total: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe built largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are made of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet machines function big inlet shock cones.
No reconnaissance plane ever sold has managed in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity versus SR-71 Blackbird. It’s the quickest aircraft propelled by air-breathing motors. The Blackbird’s performance and working accomplishments placed it during the pinnacle of aviation technology developments throughout the cool War. The plane was conceived whenever tensions with communist Eastern European countries reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis inside mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed precise tests of Soviet globally military deployments, specially close to the iron-curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance plane ended up being an able platform nevertheless the U. S. Air Force recognized that this reasonably sluggish aircraft had been at risk of Soviet interceptors. They also comprehended your fast development of surface-to-air missile methods could put U-2 pilots at grave risk. The risk proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to atmosphere missile on the Soviet Union in 1960.
Lockheed’s first proposal for a fresh high-speed, thin air, reconnaissance plane, to be effective at preventing interceptors and missiles, based on a design propelled by liquid hydrogen. This became impracticable because of substantial gasoline consumption. Lockheed after that reconfigured the look for old-fashioned fuels. It was possible in addition to Central Intelligence department (CIA), currently flying the Lockheed U-2, released a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Functions’ division (headed by the gifted design professional Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) designed the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and travel well above 18,288 m (60,000 legs). To generally meet these difficult demands, Lockheed engineers overcame numerous overwhelming technical challenges. Flying more than 3 times the speed of sound produces 316° C (600° F) temperatures on additional plane surfaces, which are enough to melt standard aluminum airframes. The look group thought we would result in the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two old-fashioned, but extremely effective, afterburning turbine machines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power flowers must run across a massive speed envelope in-flight, from a takeoff rate of 334 kph (207 miles per hour) to above 3,540 kph (2,200 miles per hour). To prevent supersonic surprise waves from moving inside engine consumption causing flameouts, Johnson’s group had to design a complex air-intake and bypass system when it comes to machines.
Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to do this by carefully shaping the airframe to mirror very little transmitted radar energy (radio waves) that you can, by application of special paint made to take in, instead of mirror, those waves. This therapy became among the first applications of stealth technology, nonetheless it never ever entirely came across the design targets.
Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi tests. The airplane revealed great vow but it needed substantial technical sophistication prior to the CIA could travel 1st functional sortie on 31, 1967 – a surveillance journey over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated included in the Air power’s 1129th Special Activities Squadron beneath the "Oxcart" system. While Lockheed continued to improve the A-12, the U. S. Air Force purchased an interceptor type of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system developed into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.
Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a unique two-seat trainer variation. Two A-12s were customized to hold an unique reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The customized A-12s were redesignated M-21s. We were holding designed to remove utilizing the D-21 drone, running on a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon amongst the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and established it at rates high enough to ignite the drone’s ramjet engine. Lockheed additionally built three YF-12As but this kind never ever went into production. Two for the YF-12As damaged during screening. Only one survives and it is on screen on USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft part of the "written off" YF-12As which was later on made use of alongside an SR-71A fixed test airframe to manufacture the only real SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C as well as 2 SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. 1st SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Due to severe functional costs, army strategists decided that even more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. We were holding resigned in 1968 after just one 12 months of working missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air energy’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (area of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) annexed the missions, flying the SR-71 from the springtime of 1968.
Following the Air energy started initially to run the SR-71, it obtained the official title Blackbird– for the special black paint that covered the plane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate a few of the great airframe heat produced by atmosphere rubbing, and camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at large altitudes.
Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 properly required two team members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated aided by the wide array of monitoring and protective methods installed from the airplane. This gear included a classy Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system that may jam most acquisition and focusing on radar. Along with numerous advanced level, high-resolution digital cameras, the plane may possibly also carry equipment designed to record the power, frequency, and wavelength of indicators emitted by communications and sensor devices such radar. The SR-71 was designed to fly deeply into hostile area, preventing interception having its great speed and thin air. It could run safely at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen kilometers, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), over the planet. The team must use pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts. These matches were expected to protect the crew in case of abrupt cabin stress loss while at operating altitudes.
To climb up and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 machines were designed to function continually in afterburner. Although this seems to determine large gas flows, the Blackbird really obtained its best "gas mileage," when it comes to air nautical kilometers per lb of gas burned, throughout the Mach 3+ cruise. A normal Blackbird reconnaissance journey could wish for a few aerial refueling businesses from an airborne tanker. Everytime the SR-71 refueled, the team needed to descend on tanker’s height, usually about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the plane to subsonic speeds. As velocity reduced, therefore performed frictional temperature. This air conditioning impact caused the plane’s epidermis panels to shrink dramatically, and people since the fuel tanks contracted such that fuel leaked, developing a unique vapor trail as tanker topped off the Blackbird. When the tanks had been filled, the jet’s team disconnected through the tanker, relit the afterburners, and once more climbed to thin air.
Air power pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its functional profession but various other basics hosted Blackbird functions, also. The 9th SRW sometimes deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other areas to carryout functional missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 failed to start to operate in European countries until 1974, then just briefly. In 1982, if the U.S. Air energy based two plane at Royal Air power Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring objective in Eastern European countries.
As soon as the SR-71 became functional, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had currently replaced manned aircraft to collect intelligence from websites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird stayed an essential tool for international intelligence gathering. On numerous occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 supplied information that proved important in formulating effective U. S. international plan. Blackbird teams supplied crucial cleverness in regards to the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its particular aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery associated with the 1986 raid conducted by US environment forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews travelled numerous missions over the Persian Gulf, exposing Iranian Silkworm missile battery packs that threatened commercial shipping and United states escort vessels.
Due to the fact overall performance of space-based surveillance systems expanded, along with the effectiveness of ground-based environment defense systems, the atmosphere power started initially to lose passion the high priced system and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 functions in January 1990. Despite protests by army frontrunners, Congress revived this system in 1995. Continued wrangling over running spending plans, however, soon led to final cancellation. The nationwide Aeronautics and area management retained two SR-71As as well as the one SR-71B for high-speed studies and flew these airplanes until 1999.
On March 6, 1990, the service job of 1 Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird finished with a record-setting journey. This special airplane bore Air energy serial quantity 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding along with his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, travelled this plane from l . a . to Washington D.C. in 60 minutes, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion associated with the flight, ‘972 arrived at Dulles International Airport and taxied to the custody of Smithsonian’s nationwide Air and Space Museum. At that moment, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of trip amount of time in Blackbirds, a lot more than that of just about any crewman.
This kind of SR-71 has also been flown by Tom Alison, an old National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections control. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air energy Base, Okinawa, Alison signed a lot more than twelve ‘972 functional sorties. The aircraft invested twenty-four years in energetic Air power solution and accrued a complete of 2,801.1 hours of journey time.
Body Weight: 170,000 Pounds
Research and additional Reading:
Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Key Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.
Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.
Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: Significantly More Than My Share from it All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.
Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Functions. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.
Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and area Museum.
London, Great Britain [Detail]
Image by NASA Goddard Picture and Video
Billions of individuals will see London through different filters and lenses during 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Not one of those views will appear that can compare with this one through the Suomi nationwide Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite.
The image above shows London and the south 50 % of Great Britain as it appeared regarding nights March 27, 2012. Some associated with activities in the 2012 Olympics will soon be held in greater London location, some other metropolitan areas and cities will host activities, including: canoeing at Lee Valley White Water Center; sailing in Weymouth and Portland; rowing and canoeing at Eton Dorney; and cycling and mountain cycle occasions at Hadleigh Farm.
The image ended up being obtained because of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi NPP, which includes a “day-night band” similar to pictures gathered because of the Operational Linescan program (OLS) flown on U.S. Defense Meterological Satellite plan (DMSP) satellites.
The day-night musical organization observes light in a variety of wavelengths from green to near-infrared, and uses light intensification allow the detection of dim indicators, relating to Chris Elvidge, which leads the planet earth Observation Group at NOAA’s nationwide Geophysical Data Center and deals with the VIIRS team.
“In wavelength-speak, the range for visible light is mostly about 400 (blue light) to 700 (red-light) nanometers, and the day/night band’s sensitiveness is 500 to 900 nanometers,” said Steve Miller, a researcher in the Cooperative Institute for Research within the environment at Colorado State University. “There tend to be some satellites up there with susceptibility for this exact same range, however the unique thing about the day/night band is its high sensitivity to low quantities of this light. It can sense light 100,000 times fainter as compared to conventional visible light sensors. That makes it extremely sensitive to such things as moonlight, city lights, among a number of other things.”
The evening views of Earth tend to be more than just a novelty. “Nightime lights will be the least ambiguous remote sensing observance showing the presence and magnitude of real human tasks plus the thickness of development,” said Elvidge. Seeing Earth’s evening lighting effects has actually useful applications in studying individual communities, financial task, habitat fragmentation and encroachment, and power use. “We can in fact evaluate urban centers and inform you exactly how much energy sources are coming from them,” Miller added, “something pretty helpful for energy consumption scientific studies.”
Other scientists utilize the nighttime views to choose internet sites for astronomical observatories, learn the effect of nocturnal lighting effects, also to monitor power outages and normal disasters. In meteorology, the combination of VIIRS nighttime views and thermal imaging is important for things such as distinguishing large clouds from reasonable clouds from fog banking institutions.
Suomi NPP was released from Vandenberg Air power Base on October 28, 2011, and it is the consequence of a cooperation between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric management, and also the Department of Defense.
NASA world Observatory picture by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day evening Band and MODIS Blue Marble information. Caption by Michael Carlowicz.
Instrument: Suomi NPP – VIIRS
NASA visits the Olympics – see all of the towns which have hosted the modern Summer Olympics, you start with Athens in 1896 thru London in 2012. There have been 29 Summer Olympic Games held in 22 various locations. Repeating host places consist of Athens, Paris, London and l . a ..
Credit: NASA World Observatory
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center makes it possible for NASA’s goal through four medical endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar program Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading part in NASA’s achievements by contributing compelling medical understanding to advance the Agency’s objective.
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