Category Archives: Credit Application

London, Great Britain

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Have a look at these credit application photos:

London, Great Britain
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Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Movie
Billions of individuals will see London through many different filters and lenses during the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Nothing of these views will appear that can compare with that one through the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite.

The image above shows London therefore the southern 50 % of the uk whilst showed up on the night of March 27, 2012. While most regarding the activities in the 2012 Olympics are held in greater London location, several other towns and towns will host events, including: canoeing at Lee Valley White Water Center; cruising in Weymouth and Portland; rowing and canoeing at Eton Dorney; and biking and hill bike occasions at Hadleigh Farm.

The picture had been obtained by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi NPP, which include a “day-night band” comparable to photos gathered by the Operational Linescan System (OLS) flown on U.S. Defense Meterological Satellite plan (DMSP) satellites.

The day-night band observes light in a variety of wavelengths from green to near-infrared, and makes use of light intensification to allow the detection of dim signals, relating to Chris Elvidge, which leads the Earth Observation Group at NOAA’s nationwide Geophysical Data Center and deals with the VIIRS team.

“In wavelength-speak, the number for noticeable light is all about 400 (blue light) to 700 (red light) nanometers, in addition to day/night band’s sensitiveness is 500 to 900 nanometers,” said Steve Miller, a researcher when you look at the Cooperative Institute for analysis inside Atmosphere at Colorado State University. “There tend to be a lot of satellites up there with sensitivity for this exact same range, although unique benefit of the day/night musical organization is its large sensitivity to low levels of this light. It can feel light 100,000 times fainter compared to old-fashioned noticeable light sensors. That makes it very sensitive to such things as moonlight, city lights, among a number of other things.”

The evening views of world are more than just a novelty. “Nightime lights would be the minimum ambiguous remote sensing observation showing the presence and magnitude of real human tasks therefore the density of development,” said Elvidge. Seeing Earth’s evening lighting effects has practical programs in studying person populations, financial activity, habitat fragmentation and encroachment, and energy use. “We can actually check locations and inform you simply how much energy sources are coming from them,” Miller added, “something pretty useful for energy usage researches.”

Various other scientists utilize the nighttime views to select sites for astronomical observatories, learn the impact of nocturnal illumination, also to monitor energy outages and normal disasters. In meteorology, the blend of VIIRS nighttime views and thermal imaging is valuable for such things as distinguishing high clouds from low clouds from fog banking institutions.

Suomi NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on October 28, 2011, and it is caused by a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric management, and also the Department of Defense.

Publisher’s Note: The lights within the Irish water, the English Channel, additionally the North Sea are likely a blend of fishing vessels and flares from offshore gas and oil platforms.

NASA Earth Observatory picture by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, making use of VIIRS Day evening Band and MODIS Blue Marble data. Caption by Michael Carlowicz.

Instrument: Suomi NPP – VIIRS

NASA visits the Olympics – View all of the towns which have hosted the current Summer Olympics, you start with Athens in 1896 thru London in 2012. There has been 29 summertime Olympic Games presented in 22 different locations. Saying host metropolitan areas consist of Athens, Paris, London and l . a ..

Credit: NASA World Observatory

NASA image use plan.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center makes it possible for NASA’s goal through four clinical endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar program Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading part in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing persuasive medical understanding to advance the Agency’s goal.

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Photomontage of SR-71 regarding the slot side
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Image by Chris Devers
Posted via e-mail to ☛ HoloChromaCinePhotoRamaScope‽:…. See the complete gallery on Posterous …

• • • • •

See more photos of this, additionally the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian nationwide Air and area Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft ever features run globally much more hostile airspace or with these types of complete impunity compared to the SR-71, the planet’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and functional accomplishments put it within peak of aviation technology developments through the cool War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of trip time during 24 many years of energetic service using U.S. Air energy. On its last journey, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida put a speed record by traveling from l . a . to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 moments, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. During the flight’s summary, they arrived at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the aircraft over to the Smithsonian.

Moved through the United States Air Force.

Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Fashion Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson


Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Total: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)


Actual Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe built largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are made of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet machines function big inlet shock cones.

Longer Explanation:
No reconnaissance plane ever sold has managed in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity versus SR-71 Blackbird. It’s the quickest aircraft propelled by air-breathing motors. The Blackbird’s performance and working accomplishments placed it during the pinnacle of aviation technology developments throughout the cool War. The plane was conceived whenever tensions with communist Eastern European countries reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis inside mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed precise tests of Soviet globally military deployments, specially close to the iron-curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance plane ended up being an able platform nevertheless the U. S. Air Force recognized that this reasonably sluggish aircraft had been at risk of Soviet interceptors. They also comprehended your fast development of surface-to-air missile methods could put U-2 pilots at grave risk. The risk proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to atmosphere missile on the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s first proposal for a fresh high-speed, thin air, reconnaissance plane, to be effective at preventing interceptors and missiles, based on a design propelled by liquid hydrogen. This became impracticable because of substantial gasoline consumption. Lockheed after that reconfigured the look for old-fashioned fuels. It was possible in addition to Central Intelligence department (CIA), currently flying the Lockheed U-2, released a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Functions’ division (headed by the gifted design professional Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) designed the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and travel well above 18,288 m (60,000 legs). To generally meet these difficult demands, Lockheed engineers overcame numerous overwhelming technical challenges. Flying more than 3 times the speed of sound produces 316° C (600° F) temperatures on additional plane surfaces, which are enough to melt standard aluminum airframes. The look group thought we would result in the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two old-fashioned, but extremely effective, afterburning turbine machines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power flowers must run across a massive speed envelope in-flight, from a takeoff rate of 334 kph (207 miles per hour) to above 3,540 kph (2,200 miles per hour). To prevent supersonic surprise waves from moving inside engine consumption causing flameouts, Johnson’s group had to design a complex air-intake and bypass system when it comes to machines.

Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to do this by carefully shaping the airframe to mirror very little transmitted radar energy (radio waves) that you can, by application of special paint made to take in, instead of mirror, those waves. This therapy became among the first applications of stealth technology, nonetheless it never ever entirely came across the design targets.

Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi tests. The airplane revealed great vow but it needed substantial technical sophistication prior to the CIA could travel 1st functional sortie on 31, 1967 – a surveillance journey over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated included in the Air power’s 1129th Special Activities Squadron beneath the "Oxcart" system. While Lockheed continued to improve the A-12, the U. S. Air Force purchased an interceptor type of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system developed into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a unique two-seat trainer variation. Two A-12s were customized to hold an unique reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The customized A-12s were redesignated M-21s. We were holding designed to remove utilizing the D-21 drone, running on a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon amongst the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and established it at rates high enough to ignite the drone’s ramjet engine. Lockheed additionally built three YF-12As but this kind never ever went into production. Two for the YF-12As damaged during screening. Only one survives and it is on screen on USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft part of the "written off" YF-12As which was later on made use of alongside an SR-71A fixed test airframe to manufacture the only real SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C as well as 2 SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. 1st SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Due to severe functional costs, army strategists decided that even more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. We were holding resigned in 1968 after just one 12 months of working missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air energy’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (area of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) annexed the missions, flying the SR-71 from the springtime of 1968.

Following the Air energy started initially to run the SR-71, it obtained the official title Blackbird– for the special black paint that covered the plane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate a few of the great airframe heat produced by atmosphere rubbing, and camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at large altitudes.

Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 properly required two team members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated aided by the wide array of monitoring and protective methods installed from the airplane. This gear included a classy Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system that may jam most acquisition and focusing on radar. Along with numerous advanced level, high-resolution digital cameras, the plane may possibly also carry equipment designed to record the power, frequency, and wavelength of indicators emitted by communications and sensor devices such radar. The SR-71 was designed to fly deeply into hostile area, preventing interception having its great speed and thin air. It could run safely at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen kilometers, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), over the planet. The team must use pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts. These matches were expected to protect the crew in case of abrupt cabin stress loss while at operating altitudes.

To climb up and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 machines were designed to function continually in afterburner. Although this seems to determine large gas flows, the Blackbird really obtained its best "gas mileage," when it comes to air nautical kilometers per lb of gas burned, throughout the Mach 3+ cruise. A normal Blackbird reconnaissance journey could wish for a few aerial refueling businesses from an airborne tanker. Everytime the SR-71 refueled, the team needed to descend on tanker’s height, usually about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the plane to subsonic speeds. As velocity reduced, therefore performed frictional temperature. This air conditioning impact caused the plane’s epidermis panels to shrink dramatically, and people since the fuel tanks contracted such that fuel leaked, developing a unique vapor trail as tanker topped off the Blackbird. When the tanks had been filled, the jet’s team disconnected through the tanker, relit the afterburners, and once more climbed to thin air.

Air power pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its functional profession but various other basics hosted Blackbird functions, also. The 9th SRW sometimes deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other areas to carryout functional missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 failed to start to operate in European countries until 1974, then just briefly. In 1982, if the U.S. Air energy based two plane at Royal Air power Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring objective in Eastern European countries.

As soon as the SR-71 became functional, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had currently replaced manned aircraft to collect intelligence from websites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird stayed an essential tool for international intelligence gathering. On numerous occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 supplied information that proved important in formulating effective U. S. international plan. Blackbird teams supplied crucial cleverness in regards to the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its particular aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery associated with the 1986 raid conducted by US environment forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews travelled numerous missions over the Persian Gulf, exposing Iranian Silkworm missile battery packs that threatened commercial shipping and United states escort vessels.

Due to the fact overall performance of space-based surveillance systems expanded, along with the effectiveness of ground-based environment defense systems, the atmosphere power started initially to lose passion the high priced system and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 functions in January 1990. Despite protests by army frontrunners, Congress revived this system in 1995. Continued wrangling over running spending plans, however, soon led to final cancellation. The nationwide Aeronautics and area management retained two SR-71As as well as the one SR-71B for high-speed studies and flew these airplanes until 1999.

On March 6, 1990, the service job of 1 Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird finished with a record-setting journey. This special airplane bore Air energy serial quantity 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding along with his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, travelled this plane from l . a . to Washington D.C. in 60 minutes, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion associated with the flight, ‘972 arrived at Dulles International Airport and taxied to the custody of Smithsonian’s nationwide Air and Space Museum. At that moment, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of trip amount of time in Blackbirds, a lot more than that of just about any crewman.

This kind of SR-71 has also been flown by Tom Alison, an old National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections control. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air energy Base, Okinawa, Alison signed a lot more than twelve ‘972 functional sorties. The aircraft invested twenty-four years in energetic Air power solution and accrued a complete of 2,801.1 hours of journey time.

Wingspan: 55’7"
Length: 107’5"
Level: 18’6"
Body Weight: 170,000 Pounds

Research and additional Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Key Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: Significantly More Than My Share from it All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Functions. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and area Museum.

father, 11-11-01

London, Great Britain [Detail]
credit application
Image by NASA Goddard Picture and Video
Billions of individuals will see London through different filters and lenses during 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Not one of those views will appear that can compare with this one through the Suomi nationwide Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite.

The image above shows London and the south 50 % of Great Britain as it appeared regarding nights March 27, 2012. Some associated with activities in the 2012 Olympics will soon be held in greater London location, some other metropolitan areas and cities will host activities, including: canoeing at Lee Valley White Water Center; sailing in Weymouth and Portland; rowing and canoeing at Eton Dorney; and cycling and mountain cycle occasions at Hadleigh Farm.

The image ended up being obtained because of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi NPP, which includes a “day-night band” similar to pictures gathered because of the Operational Linescan program (OLS) flown on U.S. Defense Meterological Satellite plan (DMSP) satellites.

The day-night musical organization observes light in a variety of wavelengths from green to near-infrared, and uses light intensification allow the detection of dim indicators, relating to Chris Elvidge, which leads the planet earth Observation Group at NOAA’s nationwide Geophysical Data Center and deals with the VIIRS team.

“In wavelength-speak, the range for visible light is mostly about 400 (blue light) to 700 (red-light) nanometers, and the day/night band’s sensitiveness is 500 to 900 nanometers,” said Steve Miller, a researcher in the Cooperative Institute for Research within the environment at Colorado State University. “There tend to be some satellites up there with susceptibility for this exact same range, however the unique thing about the day/night band is its high sensitivity to low quantities of this light. It can sense light 100,000 times fainter as compared to conventional visible light sensors. That makes it extremely sensitive to such things as moonlight, city lights, among a number of other things.”

The evening views of Earth tend to be more than just a novelty. “Nightime lights will be the least ambiguous remote sensing observance showing the presence and magnitude of real human tasks plus the thickness of development,” said Elvidge. Seeing Earth’s evening lighting effects has actually useful applications in studying individual communities, financial task, habitat fragmentation and encroachment, and power use. “We can in fact evaluate urban centers and inform you exactly how much energy sources are coming from them,” Miller added, “something pretty helpful for energy consumption scientific studies.”

Other scientists utilize the nighttime views to choose internet sites for astronomical observatories, learn the effect of nocturnal lighting effects, also to monitor power outages and normal disasters. In meteorology, the combination of VIIRS nighttime views and thermal imaging is important for things such as distinguishing large clouds from reasonable clouds from fog banking institutions.

Suomi NPP was released from Vandenberg Air power Base on October 28, 2011, and it is the consequence of a cooperation between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric management, and also the Department of Defense.

NASA world Observatory picture by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day evening Band and MODIS Blue Marble information. Caption by Michael Carlowicz.

Instrument: Suomi NPP – VIIRS

NASA visits the Olympics – see all of the towns which have hosted the modern Summer Olympics, you start with Athens in 1896 thru London in 2012. There have been 29 Summer Olympic Games held in 22 various locations. Repeating host places consist of Athens, Paris, London and l . a ..

Credit: NASA World Observatory

NASA image use policy.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center makes it possible for NASA’s goal through four medical endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar program Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading part in NASA’s achievements by contributing compelling medical understanding to advance the Agency’s objective.

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Give Your Clients The Credit report They Deserve, Usage A Credit Application

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credit application
by IAEA Imagebank

The credit rating application form for service to organisation is a great tool for small company proprietors, sales and marketing managers and business owners as well as anyone else that is gotten in touch with company in any kind of means to use as well as obtain credit. Utilized by a lot of companies, it gives a great deal of capability for taking care of the sales and also advertising tasks of the business and has been created specifically for making the credit scores company successful. The credit score application, in addition to credit report background keeps tabs on the client’s past track record along with an analysis program, assists calculate earnings, as well as costs.Typically, the credit rating application kind is a straightforward kind that calls for the adhering to details:- The name of the business requesting credit score-Years in company that the firm has actually been in-Total address and also telephone number-Nature of the firm e.g. sole proprietorship, partnership or company- Names, title, address, contact number of partners, principals or company officers- Names, title, address and phone numbers of economic get in touches with-Names, account
numbers, get in touch with names and also titles, contact number of bankers-Names, get in touch with names and also titles, phone numbers of trade references- Signature as well as date licensing that the info supplied holds true as well as precise As soon as the information has actually been entered right into the credit scores application form, the firm could utilize it as a determining

consider prolonging terms. Also utilized in this decision are the regular monthly capital statements, month-to-month sales projections along with reporting landmarks and achievements for each potential client. All this details creates better service from the company and is used to report and also evaluate the customer’s previous debt performance.According to the terms and also conditions of the credit history application for businesses, the client should ensure and require that the

acquisitions he makes are meant mainly for usage in business and also not for individual and also family members usage. On top of that, the client consents to pay passion at an agreed-to interest rate. In instance the customer’s check is returned from his financial institution, he shall agree to pay a set charge on these returned checks. The customer likewise ensures the firm prolonging terms shall be paid within practical time and in case of lawsuits and also disputes, the client shall birth the costs for lawyer’s costs as well as other lawful costs. The credit application is a full document that calls for thorough information that should be duly filled up out; such pre-formatted forms are conveniently available in the marketplace and it makes great sense to acquire these affordable files as opposed to aim to reinvent the wheel and obtain caught in the complicated service of making one from scratch. These low price, exhaustive and in-depth types have currently had specialists and also attorneys compose them to satisfy any kind of scenario therefore manage a practical cost-efficient solution to locating an appropriate form that does not take some time to fill up, and fits individual demands adequately. Wade Anderson is a Certified Public Accountant as well as operates< a rel=" nofollow"href =" "> Legal Kinds and also Service Records. Click to see a Credit history Application Relevant Debt Application Articles

Cool Credit Application images

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Check out these credit application images:

The Lighthouse at Hartlepool Headland
credit application
Image by Museum of Hartlepool
This is a photograph of the lighthouse at Hartlepool Headland taken in 1920. The lighthouse was built on a pier known as Pilots Peir

Photograph Collection No :2007.10.3

Images from Hartlepool Cultural Services that are part of The Commons on Flickr are labeled ‘no known copyright restrictions’ indicating that Hartlepool Cultural Services is unaware of any current copyright restrictions on these images either because the copyright is waived or the term of copyright has expired.

Commercial use of images is not permitted. Applications for commercial use or for higher quality reproductions should be made to Hartlepool Cultural Services, Sir William Gray House, Clarence Road, Hartlepool, TS24 8BT. When using the images please credit ‘Hartlepool Cultural Services’.

Alarm clock
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Image by Museum of Hartlepool
Alarm clock with a piece of German shell embedded in the dial. The clock was damaged during the bombardment of the Hartlepools on 16th December 1914. It is said that the clock stopped at the time of the shell hitting it. The clock belonged to a resident at 14 Collingwood Road but is now part of the collections at the Museum of Hartlepool and is on permanent display. Ironically the clock was manufactured in Germany. HAPMG : 1990.6.1

Images from Hartlepool Cultural Services that are part of The Commons on Flickr are labeled ‘no known copyright restrictions’ indicating that Hartlepool Cultural Services is unaware of any current copyright restrictions on these images either because the copyright is waived or the term of copyright has expired.

Commercial use of images is not permitted. Applications for commercial use or for higher quality reproductions should be made to Hartlepool Cultural Services, Sir William Gray House, Clarence Road, Hartlepool, TS24 8BT. When using the images please credit ‘Hartlepool Cultural Services’.

When It Pertains to Aboriginal Art, It Can Branch Out Into the Imagination!

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A few nice credit application images I found:

When It Comes to Aboriginal Art, It Can Branch Out Into the Imagination!
credit application
Image by antonychammond
This artwork was hanging on the wall of our room in our B & B in Trieste. If anyone can identify the artist, I will gladly give him/her credit.

Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others. It includes works in a wide range of media including painting on leaves, wood carving, rock carving, sculpting, ceremonial clothing and sand painting. This article discusses works that pre-date European colonization as well as contemporary Indigenous Australian art by Aboriginal Australians. These have been studied in recent years and have gained much international recognition.

There are several types of aboriginal art, and ways of making art, including rock painting, dot painting, rock engravings, bark painting, carvings, sculptures, and weaving and string art.

On modern artwork, dots are generally applied with bamboo satay sticks. The larger flat end of bamboo satay sticks are more commonly used for single application of dots to paintings, but the sharp pointier end is used to create fine dots. To create superimposed dotting, artists may take a bunch of satay sticks, dip the pointy ends into the paint and then transfer them onto the canvas in quick successions of dotting.

Certain symbols within the Aboriginal modern art movement retain the same meaning across regions although the meaning of the symbols may change within the context of a painting. When viewed in monochrome other symbols can look similar, such as the circles within circles, sometimes depicted on their own, sparsely, or in clustered groups. Depending upon the tribe of which the artist is a murnanember, symbols such as campfire, tree, hill, digging hole, waterhole, or spring can vary in meaning. Use of the symbol can be clarified further by the use of colour, such as water being depicted in blue or black.

Many paintings by Aboriginal artists, such as those that represent a "dreamtime story", are shown from an aerial perspective. The narrative follows the lie of the land, as created by ancestral beings in their journey or during creation. The modern day rendition is a reinterpretation of songs, ceremonies, rock art and body art that was the norm for many thousands of years.

Whatever the meaning, interpretations of the symbols should be made in context of the entire painting, the region from which the artist originates, the story behind the painting, and the style of the painting, with additional clues being the colours used in some of the more modern works, such as blue circles signifying water.(Source: Aboriginal Symbols – Indigenous Australia)

Story-telling and totem representation feature prominently in all forms of Aboriginal artwork. Additionally, the female form, particularly the female womb in X-ray style, features prominently in some famous sites in Arnhem Land.

In 1934 Australian painter Rex Batterbee taught Aboriginal artist Albert Namatjira western style watercolour landscape painting, along with other Aboriginal artists at the Hermannsburg mission in the Northern Territory. It became a popular style, known as the Hermannsburg School, and sold out when the paintings were exhibited in Melbourne, Adelaide and other Australian cities. Namatjira became the first Aboriginal Australian citizen, as a result of his fame and popularity with these watercolour paintings.

In 1966, one of David Malangi’s designs was produced on the Australian one dollar note, originally without his knowledge. The subsequent payment to him by the Reserve Bank marked the first case of Aboriginal copyright in Australian copyright law.

In 1988 the Aboriginal Memorial was unveiled at the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra made from 200 hollow log coffins, which are similar to the type used for mortuary ceremonies in Arnhem Land. It was made for the bicentenary of Australia’s colonisation, and is in remembrance of Aboriginal people who had died protecting their land during conflict with settlers. It was created by 43 artists from Ramingining and communities nearby. The path running through the middle of it represents the Glyde River.

In that same year, the new Parliament House in Canberra opened with a forecourt featuring a design by Michael Nelson Tjakamarra, laid as a mosaic.

The late Rover Thomas is another well known modern Australian Aboriginal artist. Born in Western Australia, he represented Australia in the Venice Biennale of 1991. He knew and encouraged other now well-known artists to paint, including Queenie McKenzie from the East Kimberley / Warmun region, as well as having a strong influence on the works of Paddy Bedford and Freddy Timms.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s the work of Emily Kngwarreye, from the Utopia community north east of Alice Springs, became very popular. Although she had been involved in craftwork for most of her life, it was only when she was in her 80s that she was recognised as a painter. Her works include Earth’s Creation. Her styles, which changed every year, have been seen as a mixture of traditional Aboriginal and contemporary Australian. Her rise in popularity has prefigured that of many Indigenous artists from central, northern and western Australia, such as Kngwarreye’s niece Kathleen Petyarre, Minnie Pwerle, Dorothy Napangardi, Lena Pwerle, Angelina Ngale (Pwerle) and dozens of others, all of whose works have become highly sought-after. The popularity of these often elderly artists, and the resulting pressure placed upon them and their health, has become such an issue that some art centres have stopped selling these artists’ paintings online, instead placing prospective clients on a waiting list for work.

Current artists in vogue include Jacinta Hayes, popular for her iconic representation of "Bush Medicine Leaves" and "Honey Ants", Rex Sultan (who studied with Albert Namatjira), Trephina Sultan and Reggie Sultan, Bessie Pitjara and Joyce Nakamara, amongst others.

Despite concerns about supply and demand for paintings, the remoteness of many of the artists, and the poverty and health issues experienced in the communities, there are widespread estimates of an industry worth close to half a billion Australian dollars each year, and growing rapidly.

In 1971–1972, art teacher Geoffrey Bardon encouraged Aboriginal people in Papunya, north west of Alice Springs to put their Dreamings onto canvas. These stories had previously been drawn on the desert sand, and were now given a more permanent form.

The dots were used to cover secret-sacred ceremonies. Originally, the Tula artists succeeded in forming their own company with an Aboriginal Name, Papunya Tula Artists Pty Ltd, however a time of disillusionment followed as artists were criticised by their peers for having revealed too much of their sacred heritage. Secret designs restricted to a ritual context were now in the market place, made visible to Australian Aboriginal painting. Much of the Aboriginal art on display in tourist shops traces back to this style developed at Papunya. The most famous of the artists to come from this movement was Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri. Also from this movement is Johnny Warangkula, whose Water Dreaming at Kalipinya twice sold at a record price, the second time being 6,500 in 2000.

The Papunya Collection at the National Museum of Australia contains over 200 artifacts and paintings, including examples of 1970’s dot paintings.

For further information please visit and…

Army Photography Contest – 2007 – FMWRC – Arts and Crafts – A Plumpish Proportion
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Image by familymwr
Army Photography Contest – 2007 – FMWRC – Arts and Crafts – A Plumpish Proportion

Photo By: SSG Robert Stewart

To learn more about the annual U.S. Army Photography Competition, visit us online at

U.S. Army Arts and Crafts History

After World War I the reductions to the Army left the United States with a small force. The War Department faced monumental challenges in preparing for World War II. One of those challenges was soldier morale. Recreational activities for off duty time would be important. The arts and crafts program informally evolved to augment the needs of the War Department.
On January 9, 1941, the Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, appointed Frederick H. Osborn, a prominent U.S. businessman and philanthropist, Chairman of the War Department Committee on Education, Recreation and Community Service.
In 1940 and 1941, the United States involvement in World War II was more of sympathy and anticipation than of action. However, many different types of institutions were looking for ways to help the war effort. The Museum of Modern Art in New York was one of these institutions. In April, 1941, the Museum announced a poster competition, “Posters for National Defense.” The directors stated “The Museum feels that in a time of national emergency the artists of a country are as important an asset as men skilled in other fields, and that the nation’s first-rate talent should be utilized by the government for its official design work… Discussions have been held with officials of the Army and the Treasury who have expressed remarkable enthusiasm…”
In May 1941, the Museum exhibited “Britain at War”, a show selected by Sir Kenneth Clark, director of the National Gallery in London. The “Prize-Winning Defense Posters” were exhibited in July through September concurrently with “Britain at War.” The enormous overnight growth of the military force meant mobilization type construction at every camp. Construction was fast; facilities were not fancy; rather drab and depressing.
In 1941, the Fort Custer Army Illustrators, while on strenuous war games maneuvers in Tennessee, documented the exercise The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Feb. 1942), described their work. “Results were astonishingly good; they showed serious devotion …to the purpose of depicting the Army scene with unvarnished realism and a remarkable ability to capture this scene from the soldier’s viewpoint. Civilian amateur and professional artists had been transformed into soldier-artists. Reality and straightforward documentation had supplanted (replaced) the old romantic glorification and false dramatization of war and the slick suavity (charm) of commercial drawing.”

“In August of last year, Fort Custer Army Illustrators held an exhibition, the first of its kind in the new Army, at the Camp Service Club. Soldiers who saw the exhibition, many of whom had never been inside an art gallery, enjoyed it thoroughly. Civilian visitors, too, came and admired. The work of the group showed them a new aspect of the Army; there were many phases of Army life they had never seen or heard of before. Newspapers made much of it and, most important, the Army approved. Army officials saw that it was not only authentic material, but that here was a source of enlivenment (vitalization) to the Army and a vivid medium for conveying the Army’s purposes and processes to civilians and soldiers.”
Brigadier General Frederick H. Osborn and War Department leaders were concerned because few soldiers were using the off duty recreation areas that were available. Army commanders recognized that efficiency is directly correlated with morale, and that morale is largely determined from the manner in which an individual spends his own free time. Army morale enhancement through positive off duty recreation programs is critical in combat staging areas.
To encourage soldier use of programs, the facilities drab and uninviting environment had to be improved. A program utilizing talented artists and craftsmen to decorate day rooms, mess halls, recreation halls and other places of general assembly was established by the Facilities Section of Special Services. The purpose was to provide an environment that would reflect the military tradition, accomplishments and the high standard of army life. The fact that this work was to be done by the men themselves had the added benefit of contributing to the esprit de corps (teamwork, or group spirit) of the unit.
The plan was first tested in October of 1941, at Camp Davis, North Carolina. A studio workshop was set up and a group of soldier artists were placed on special duty to design and decorate the facilities. Additionally, evening recreation art classes were scheduled three times a week. A second test was established at Fort Belvoir, Virginia a month later. The success of these programs lead to more installations requesting the program.
After Pearl Harbor was bombed, the Museum of Modern Art appointed Mr. James Soby, to the position of Director of the Armed Service Program on January 15, 1942. The subsequent program became a combination of occupational therapy, exhibitions and morale-sustaining activities.
Through the efforts of Mr. Soby, the museum program included; a display of Fort Custer Army Illustrators work from February through April 5, 1942. The museum also included the work of soldier-photographers in this exhibit. On May 6, 1942, Mr. Soby opened an art sale of works donated by museum members. The sale was to raise funds for the Soldier Art Program of Special Services Division. The bulk of these proceeds were to be used to provide facilities and materials for soldier artists in Army camps throughout the country.
Members of the Museum had responded with paintings, sculptures, watercolors, gouaches, drawings, etchings and lithographs. Hundreds of works were received, including oils by Winslow Homer, Orozco, John Kane, Speicher, Eilshemius, de Chirico; watercolors by Burchfield and Dufy; drawings by Augustus John, Forain and Berman, and prints by Cezanne, Lautrec, Matisse and Bellows. The War Department plan using soldier-artists to decorate and improve buildings and grounds worked. Many artists who had been drafted into the Army volunteered to paint murals in waiting rooms and clubs, to decorate dayrooms, and to landscape grounds. For each artist at work there were a thousand troops who watched. These bystanders clamored to participate, and classes in drawing, painting, sculpture and photography were offered. Larger working space and more instructors were required to meet the growing demand. Civilian art instructors and local communities helped to meet this cultural need, by providing volunteer instruction and facilities.
Some proceeds from the Modern Museum of Art sale were used to print 25,000 booklets called “Interior Design and Soldier Art.” The booklet showed examples of soldier-artist murals that decorated places of general assembly. It was a guide to organizing, planning and executing the soldier-artist program. The balance of the art sale proceeds were used to purchase the initial arts and crafts furnishings for 350 Army installations in the USA.
In November, 1942, General Somervell directed that a group of artists be selected and dispatched to active theaters to paint war scenes with the stipulation that soldier artists would not paint in lieu of military duties.
Aileen Osborn Webb, sister of Brigadier General Frederick H. Osborn, launched the American Crafts Council in 1943. She was an early champion of the Army program.
While soldiers were participating in fixed facilities in the USA, many troops were being shipped overseas to Europe and the Pacific (1942-1945). They had long periods of idleness and waiting in staging areas. At that time the wounded were lying in hospitals, both on land and in ships at sea. The War Department and Red Cross responded by purchasing kits of arts and crafts tools and supplies to distribute to “these restless personnel.” A variety of small “Handicraft Kits” were distributed free of charge. Leathercraft, celluloid etching, knotting and braiding, metal tooling, drawing and clay modeling are examples of the types of kits sent.
In January, 1944, the Interior Design Soldier Artist program was more appropriately named the “Arts and Crafts Section” of Special Services. The mission was “to fulfill the natural human desire to create, provide opportunities for self-expression, serve old skills and develop new ones, and assist the entire recreation program through construction work, publicity, and decoration.”
The National Army Art Contest was planned for the late fall of 1944. In June of 1945, the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C., for the first time in its history opened its facilities for the exhibition of the soldier art and photography submitted to this contest. The “Infantry Journal, Inc.” printed a small paperback booklet containing 215 photographs of pictures exhibited in the National Gallery of Art.
In August of 1944, the Museum of Modern Art, Armed Forces Program, organized an art center for veterans. Abby Rockefeller, in particular, had a strong interest in this project. Soldiers were invited to sketch, paint, or model under the guidance of skilled artists and craftsmen. Victor d’Amico, who was in charge of the Museum’s Education Department, was quoted in Russell Lynes book, Good Old Modern: An Intimate Portrait of the Museum of Modern Art. “I asked one fellow why he had taken up art and he said, Well, I just came back from destroying everything. I made up my mind that if I ever got out of the Army and out of the war I was never going to destroy another thing in my life, and I decided that art was the thing that I would do.” Another man said to d’Amico, “Art is like a good night’s sleep. You come away refreshed and at peace.”
In late October, 1944, an Arts and Crafts Branch of Special Services Division, Headquarters, European Theater of Operations was established. A versatile program of handcrafts flourished among the Army occupation troops.
The increased interest in crafts, rather than fine arts, at this time lead to a new name for the program: The “Handicrafts Branch.”
In 1945, the War Department published a new manual, “Soldier Handicrafts”, to help implement this new emphasis. The manual contained instructions for setting up crafts facilities, selecting as well as improvising tools and equipment, and basic information on a variety of arts and crafts.
As the Army moved from a combat to a peacetime role, the majority of crafts shops in the United States were equipped with woodworking power machinery for construction of furnishings and objects for personal living. Based on this new trend, in 1946 the program was again renamed, this time as “Manual Arts.”
At the same time, overseas programs were now employing local artists and craftsmen to operate the crafts facilities and instruct in a variety of arts and crafts. These highly skilled, indigenous instructors helped to stimulate the soldiers’ interest in the respective native cultures and artifacts. Thousands of troops overseas were encouraged to record their experiences on film. These photographs provided an invaluable means of communication between troops and their families back home.
When the war ended, the Navy had a firm of architects and draftsmen on contract to design ships. Since there was no longer a need for more ships, they were given a new assignment: To develop a series of instructional guides for arts and crafts. These were called “Hobby Manuals.” The Army was impressed with the quality of the Navy manuals and had them reprinted and adopted for use by Army troops. By 1948, the arts and crafts practiced throughout the Army were so varied and diverse that the program was renamed “Hobby Shops.” The first “Interservice Photography Contest” was held in 1948. Each service is eligible to send two years of their winning entries forward for the bi-annual interservice contest. In 1949, the first All Army Crafts Contest was also held. Once again, it was clear that the program title, “Hobby Shops” was misleading and overlapped into other forms of recreation.
In January, 1951, the program was designated as “The Army Crafts Program.” The program was recognized as an essential Army recreation activity along with sports, libraries, service clubs, soldier shows and soldier music. In the official statement of mission, professional leadership was emphasized to insure a balanced, progressive schedule of arts and crafts would be conducted in well-equipped, attractive facilities on all Army installations.
The program was now defined in terms of a “Basic Seven Program” which included: drawing and painting; ceramics and sculpture; metal work; leathercrafts; model building; photography and woodworking. These programs were to be conducted regularly in facilities known as the “multiple-type crafts shop.” For functional reasons, these facilities were divided into three separate technical areas for woodworking, photography and the arts and crafts.
During the Korean Conflict, the Army Crafts program utilized the personnel and shops in Japan to train soldiers to instruct crafts in Korea.
The mid-1950s saw more soldiers with cars and the need to repair their vehicles was recognized at Fort Carson, Colorado, by the craft director. Soldiers familiar with crafts shops knew that they had tools and so automotive crafts were established. By 1958, the Engineers published an Official Design Guide on Crafts Shops and Auto Crafts Shops. In 1959, the first All Army Art Contest was held. Once more, the Army Crafts Program responded to the needs of soldiers.
In the 1960’s, the war in Vietnam was a new challenge for the Army Crafts Program. The program had three levels of support; fixed facilities, mobile trailers designed as portable photo labs, and once again a “Kit Program.” The kit program originated at Headquarters, Department of Army, and it proved to be very popular with soldiers.
Tom Turner, today a well-known studio potter, was a soldier at Ft. Jackson, South Carolina in the 1960s. In the December 1990 / January 1991 “American Crafts” magazine, Turner, who had been a graduate student in art school when he was drafted, said the program was “a godsend.”
The Army Artist Program was re-initiated in cooperation with the Office of Military History to document the war in Vietnam. Soldier-artists were identified and teams were formed to draw and paint the events of this combat. Exhibitions of these soldier-artist works were produced and toured throughout the USA.
In 1970, the original name of the program, “Arts and Crafts”, was restored. In 1971, the “Arts and Crafts/Skills Development Program” was established for budget presentations and construction projects.
After the Vietnam demobilization, a new emphasis was placed on service to families and children of soldiers. To meet this new challenge in an environment of funding constraints the arts and crafts program began charging fees for classes. More part-time personnel were used to teach formal classes. Additionally, a need for more technical-vocational skills training for military personnel was met by close coordination with Army Education Programs. Army arts and crafts directors worked with soldiers during “Project Transition” to develop soldier skills for new careers in the public sector.
The main challenge in the 1980s and 90s was, and is, to become “self-sustaining.” Directors have been forced to find more ways to generate increased revenue to help defray the loss of appropriated funds and to cover the non-appropriated funds expenses of the program. Programs have added and increased emphasis on services such as, picture framing, gallery sales, engraving and trophy sales, etc… New programs such as multi-media computer graphics appeal to customers of the 1990’s.
The Gulf War presented the Army with some familiar challenges such as personnel off duty time in staging areas. Department of Army volunteer civilian recreation specialists were sent to Saudi Arabia in January, 1991, to organize recreation programs. Arts and crafts supplies were sent to the theater. An Army Humor Cartoon Contest was conducted for the soldiers in the Gulf, and arts and crafts programs were set up to meet soldier interests.
The increased operations tempo of the ‘90’s Army has once again placed emphasis on meeting the “recreation needs of deployed soldiers.” Arts and crafts activities and a variety of programs are assets commanders must have to meet the deployment challenges of these very different scenarios.
The Army arts and crafts program, no matter what it has been titled, has made some unique contributions for the military and our society in general. Army arts and crafts does not fit the narrow definition of drawing and painting or making ceramics, but the much larger sense of arts and crafts. It is painting and drawing. It also encompasses:
* all forms of design. (fabric, clothes, household appliances, dishes, vases, houses, automobiles, landscapes, computers, copy machines, desks, industrial machines, weapon systems, air crafts, roads, etc…)
* applied technology (photography, graphics, woodworking, sculpture, metal smithing, weaving and textiles, sewing, advertising, enameling, stained glass, pottery, charts, graphs, visual aides and even formats for correspondence…)
* a way of making learning fun, practical and meaningful (through the process of designing and making an object the creator must decide which materials and techniques to use, thereby engaging in creative problem solving and discovery) skills taught have military applications.
* a way to acquire quality items and save money by doing-it-yourself (making furniture, gifts, repairing things …).
* a way to pursue college credit, through on post classes.
* a universal and non-verbal language (a picture is worth a thousand words).
* food for the human psyche, an element of morale that allows for individual expression (freedom).
* the celebration of human spirit and excellence (our highest form of public recognition is through a dedicated monument).
* physical and mental therapy (motor skill development, stress reduction, etc…).
* an activity that promotes self-reliance and self-esteem.
* the record of mankind, and in this case, of the Army.
What would the world be like today if this generally unknown program had not existed? To quantitatively state the overall impact of this program on the world is impossible. Millions of soldier citizens have been directly and indirectly exposed to arts and crafts because this program existed. One activity, photography can provide a clue to its impact. Soldiers encouraged to take pictures, beginning with WW II, have shared those images with family and friends. Classes in “How to Use a Camera” to “How to Develop Film and Print Pictures” were instrumental in soldiers seeing the results of using quality equipment. A good camera and lens could make a big difference in the quality of the print. They bought the top of the line equipment. When they were discharged from the Army or home on leave this new equipment was showed to the family and friends. Without this encouragement and exposure to photography many would not have recorded their personal experiences or known the difference quality equipment could make. Families and friends would not have had the opportunity to “see” the environment their soldier was living in without these photos. Germany, Italy, Korea, Japan, Panama, etc… were far away places that most had not visited.
As the twenty first century approaches, the predictions for an arts renaissance by Megatrends 2000 seem realistic based on the Army Arts and Crafts Program practical experience. In the April ‘95 issue of “American Demographics” magazine, an article titled “Generation X” fully supports that this is indeed the case today. Television and computers have greatly contributed to “Generation X” being more interested in the visual arts and crafts.
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