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Image from page 200 of “Annual report” (1891)

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Image from page 200 of “Annual report” (1891)
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Identifier: annualreport191901onta
Title: Annual report
Year: 1891 (1890s)
Authors: Ontario. Dept. of Mines
Subjects: Mines and mineral resources
Publisher: Toronto
Contributing Library: Gerstein – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

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ccupations, provision must be made for the changingof wet and dirty clothing, and the donning of comfortable and warm apparel for Btreet wear. Four change houses have been built, with a total of GOO lockers and with hot ami cold showersand lavatory accommodations. The Port Colborne refinery began operations last June, and when at full capacity willbe capable of a yearly production of about 15,000,000 lbs. of nickel and 8,000,000 lbs. efcopper. The engineers responsible for the installation have given special attention to the designand construction of the plant and to the possibilities of expansion, and have arranged theequipment in such a way that additions to machinery and equipment can be made in anefficient manner. The plant was built a1 a COSl of over ,000,000. The result impresses the visitor andmakes him feel that not only is Canada—and Ontario in particular—to be congratulated onthe introduction of nickel refining upon a permanent basis, but that credit is also due to the

Text Appearing After Image:
[nternational Nickel Company of Canada, Port Colborne—Main power house, showing turboblowers running at 8,500 r.p.m., supplying air to the copper converters. Foundation Co., of Montreal and New York, as the main contractor responsible for the con-struction, and to The International Nickel Co. for the broad and liber:,] attitude shown inhaving this plant built undei the stress of war conditions. A description of the turbo-blower was published by W. Wotherspoon in theEngineering and Minimi Journal of May 17th, 1919, and is as follow The turbo-blowei is s pan of the mechanical equipment of the International Nickel Co.snew plant at Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada. The unit, which was furnished by the Bateau Battu-Smoot Company, New Fork, has acapacity of 15,000 eu. ft. of free air per min., delivered at 15 lbs. gauge pressure. The speedof 8,500 r.p.m. at which it operates is believed to be the highest attempted or attained for amachine of this capacity and type. The outside dimensions of

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Alberto Santos-Dumont
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Alberto Santos-Dumont (July 20, 1873 – July 23, 1932) ended up being a significant very early pioneer of aviation. Although he had been created, was raised, and died in Brazil, his efforts to aviation had been made as he ended up being staying in France.

Santos-Dumont created, built, and flew the first practical dirigible balloons (for example. airships). In doing this he became the first individual show that routine, managed trip had been possible. This "conquest of air", particularly winning the Deutsch de la Meurthe reward on October 19, 1901 on a flight that rounded the Eiffel Tower, made him very famous persons worldwide during very early 1900s.

As well as their pioneering work in airships, Santos-Dumont made initial community journey of a plane in European countries, in Paris in October of 1906. That aircraft, designated 14 Bis or Oiseau de proie (French for "bird of prey"), is recognized as become the first to lose, travel, and land minus the usage of catapults, large winds, launch rails, or any other external assistance. Hence, most Brazilians start thinking about him becoming the "Father of Aviation" plus the creator for the aircraft.

Much controversy persists all over numerous competing claims of early aviators.

Childhood in Brazil
Santos-Dumont came to be in Cabengu, a village in the Brazilian town of Palmira (These days the spot is Santos-Dumont inside state of Minas Gerais.) He spent my youth since the youngest of eleven kiddies on a coffee plantation had by his family in the state of São Paulo. Their French-born daddy ended up being an engineer, making considerable utilization of the most recent labor-saving innovations on their vast home. Therefore effective had been these innovations that Santos-Dumont’s dad collected a large fortune and became known as the "Coffee King of Brazil."

Santos-Dumont had been interested in equipment, and while still a kid he learned to operate a vehicle the vapor tractors and locomotive applied to his family’s plantation. He was in addition a fan of Jules Verne and had read all his books before his tenth birthday celebration. He had written in the autobiography that the desire flying came to him while contemplating the magnificent heavens of Brazil into the lengthy, sunny afternoons at plantation.

Based on the custom of affluent groups of enough time, after receiving standard instruction acquainted with personal instructors (including his parents), young Alberto had been sent alone to larger towns to complete their secondary scientific studies. He studied for a while in "Colégio Culto à Ciência", in Campinas.

Proceed to France
In 1891, Alberto’s dad had any sort of accident while examining some equipment. He dropped from his horse and became a paraplegic. He decided then to offer the plantation and go on to Europe together with his partner along with his youngest boy. At seventeen, Santos-Dumont left the prestigious Escola de Minas in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, for city Paris in France. First thing he did there was to purchase a vehicle. Later, he pursued studies in physics, chemistry, mechanics, and electricity, with a personal tutor.

Balloons and dirigibles
Santos-Dumont described himself since the first "sportsman for the air." He began flying by hiring a seasoned balloon pilot and took his very first balloon rides as a passenger. He quickly moved on to piloting balloons himself, and soon after that to creating his or her own balloons. In 1898, Santos-Dumont flew his very first balloon design, the Brésil.

After many balloon routes, he looked to the look of steerable balloons or dirigible type balloons that may be propelled through the environment in place of drifting along with the snap. Between 1898 and 1905 he built and flew 11 dirigibles. With air-traffic control restrictions nonetheless years in the foreseeable future, he’d glide along Paris boulevards at rooftop level in another of his airships, frequently landing facing a fashionable outdoor cafe for meal. Using one celebration he even flew an airship early one early morning to his very own apartment at No. 9, Rue Washington, simply off Avenue diverses Champs-Élysées maybe not not even close to the Arc de Triomphe.

The zenith of their lighter-than-air job arrived as he won the Deutsch de los angeles Meurthe reward. The challenge called for traveling through the Parc Saint-Cloud on Eiffel Tower and back in less than thirty minutes. The champion for the prize would need to maintain an average ground rate of at least 22 km/hour (14 mph) to cover the round trip distance of 11 kilometer (6.8 miles) in the allocated time.

After a few attempts and studies, Santos-Dumont succeeded on October 19, 1901 making use of their dirigible Number 6. soon after the trip, a debate smashed on around a final minute guideline change about the accurate time associated with trip. There is much community outcry and remark inside hit. Eventually, after a number of days of vacilating because of the committee of officials, Santos-Dumont ended up being granted the prize plus the prize money of 100,000 francs. In a charitable motion, he donated half the award cash to the poor of Paris. Others 1 / 2 was handed to their workmen as a plus.

Santos-Dumont’s aviation feats made him a celebrity in Europe and around the world. He won a few more awards and became a buddy to millionaires, aviation pioneers, and royalty. In 1901 he had been considered by many to be the essential famous individual in the world. In 1904, he went along to america and had been welcomed on White House to meet up with United States President Theodore Roosevelt. The general public eagerly then followed their bold exploits. Parisians affectionately dubbed him le petit Santos. The trendy people of time mimicked various components of their form of dress from their high-collared tops to singed Panama hat. He had been, and continues to be to this day, a prominent people hero in his native Brazil.

Heavier-than-air
Although Santos-Dumont proceeded to your workplace on dirigibles, their major interest soon considered heavier-than-air-craft. By 1905 he had done his very first airplane design, also a helicopter. He finally realized their desire flying on an airplane in October 23 of 1906, when, piloting the 14 Bis before a sizable group of witnesses, he travelled a distance of 60 metres (197 ft) at a height of 2-3 m. This well-documented event ended up being the initial flight verified because of the Aero-Club De France of a powered heavier-than-air device in European countries, therefore the very first general public demonstration in the wide world of an aircraft taking off from an ordinary airstrip with a non-detachable landing gear as well as on its very own energy (self-propelled) in relaxed climate, showing into the spectators that a device "heavier than air" might take faraway from the floor by its means. Using this success, he won the Archdeacon reward founded because of the Frenchman Ernest Archdeacon in July of 1906, become granted toward very first aviator to travel more than 25 yards. On November 12 of the identical 12 months, Santos-Dumont succeeded in setting 1st world-record in aviation by traveling 220 meters within just 22 moments. These two activities took place ahead of the Wright Brothers had made any routes to which people ended up being invited, even though the Wright Brothers had made and photographed circular flights in excess of around 30 minutes with witnesses at a field alongside a public roadway 12 months earlier near Dayton, Ohio.

The 14bis on its historical first flight.Santos-Dumont made numerous contributions towards industry of plane control. The essential noteworthy one had been the usage effective ailerons at exterior wings. Although ailerons have been used in sailplanes before, Dumont pioneered their application for plane. He additionally forced for and exploited substantial improvements in motor power-to-weight ratio, alongside refinements in aircraft construction methods.

Santos-Dumont’s last design had been the Demoiselle monoplane. This plane had been used as Dumont’s private transportation and he willingly let other individuals use his design. The fuselage consisted of a specially reinforced bamboo boom, in addition to pilot sat beneath amongst the primary rims of a tricycle landing gear. The Demoiselle ended up being managed in-flight partly by a tail device that functioned both elevator and rudder by wing warping.

The high-wing Demoiselle aircraft had a wingspan of 5.10 m and a general amount of 8 m. Its body weight was little more than 110 kg with Santos-Dumont at the settings. The pilot ended up being sitting below the fuselage-wing junction, just behind the rims, and commanded the end surfaces utilizing a steering wheel. The cables of sustentation of the wing were made of piano ropes. In the beginning, Santos-Dumont employed a liquid-cooled Dutheil & Chalmers motor with 20 hp. Later, the creator repositioned the engine to a diminished place, placing it at the pilot. Santos-Dumont also replaced the former 20-hp motor by a 24-hp Antoniette and done some wing reinforcements. This version obtained the designation No. 20. Due to structural problems and continuing decreased power Santos-Dumont introduced additional alterations in Demoiselle’s design: a triangular and shortened fuselage made from bamboo; the motor had been relocated back into its initial place, as you’re watching wing; and enhanced wingspan. Santos-Dumont tested opposed-cylinder (he patented an answer for air conditioning this type of engine) and cooled-water machines, with power settings which range from 20 to 40 hp, in the two variants. An appealing feature associated with water-cooled variant had been the liquid-coolant pipeline which then followed the wing reduced side lofting to improve aerodynamics.

The Demoiselle aircraft might be built in just fifteen days. Having outstanding performance, quickly addressing 200 m of floor during preliminary flights and traveling at speeds in excess of 100 km/h, the Demoiselle had been the last plane built by Santos-Dumont. He accustomed perform flights because of the plane in Paris and some small trips to nearby places. Routes were continued at different times through 1909, such as the very first cross-country journey with steps of about 8 kilometer, from St. Cyr to Buc on September 13, going back these time, and another regarding the 17th, of 18 km in 16 min. The Demoiselle which was fitted with two-cylinder engine became rather preferred. The French WWI-ace Roland Garros travelled it during the Belmont Park, New York, in 1910. The Summer 1910 version for the Popular Mechanics mag published drawings regarding the Demoiselle and affirmed that Santos-Dumont’s plane ended up being better than some other that were created to that day, for people who want to reach results because of the least possible expenditure along with a minimum of experimenting. United states organizations marketed drawings and elements of Demoiselle for several years after that. Santos-Dumont ended up being therefore enthusiastic about aviation that he introduced the drawings of Demoiselle for free, thinking that aviation is the mainstream of a fresh prosperous period for mankind. Clément Bayard, an automotive maker, constructed a few products of Demoiselles, that has been sold for 50,000 Francs.

The style of Demoiselle clearly affected that of the Blériot XI airplane, that has been utilized for the British Channel crossing in 1909.

Controversy vis-a-vis Wright brothers
The claim to your first flying machine continues to be the arena for disputes about definitions, facts, and merits. These polemics tend to be fueled by powerful nationalistic or social emotions.

In some nations, particularly Brazil, Santos-Dumont is regarded as to be the creator regarding the aircraft, due to the official as well as general public personality for the 14-bis trip as well as some technical points. It has been traditionally the official position of the Brazilian government, especially since the Getúlio Vargas dictatorship. Vargas instituted a department within their government for "Information and Propaganda." This department created schoolbooks praising everything Brazilian; whenever Vargas dictatorship ended in 1945, the department-influenced schoolbooks endured.

The strongest technical critique for the Wrights’ very early aircraft is, even though it is clear that these aircraft could sustain managed flight, they always used some form of assist with be airborne. The help ranged in form from needing a stiff headwind, using launch rails, and/or the utilization of additional thrust (a catapult) to get the needed airspeed for launch. As a result, not one associated with Wrights’ early craft became popular under their power in relaxed wind from a regular floor area as ended up being accomplished by the routes of this 14-bis.

In a few other countries, especially the United States, the honor of first efficient heavier-than-air journey is most regularly assigned toward Wright brothers for their flight of 39 meters (120 feet) in 12 moments on December 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk in vermont. None the less, in these nations here continues to be a higher respect for Santos-Dumont’s accomplishments, and a recognition of this 14-bis trip as an important event at the beginning of aviation.

Supporters of Wrights’ claim highlight that use of floor rails specifically was necessitated by the Wrights’ chosen airfields — the sand at Kitty Hawk additionally the rough pasture at Huffman prairie — as opposed to the fairly smooth and fast parkland offered to Santos-Dumont and wasn’t an expression of every aerodyamic weakness in their design. Appropriately, the catapult used at Huffman Prairie allowed making use of a relatively quick surface train thus preventing the time-consuming drudgery of positioning a huge selection of foot of train required for launches without a catapult.

Supporters of Wright Flyer claim also point out that 1) although a rigid head wind had been needed, the plane moved under unique energy, unassisted by gravity; 2) the Wrights had been the first ever to develop efficient plane control, which made practical flight possible, even in breezy or windy problems which are typical, as well as in calm circumstances. They introduced far exceptional control systems well before all the other winged plane, including Santos-Dumont’s 14-bis; 3) the Wright Brothers accurately described a few maxims of journey (including aerodynamics and propeller design) that past pioneers had both explained inaccurately or perhaps not after all; 4) the trip has been reproduced experimentally utilizing a painstakingly recreated reproduction associated with original plane.

It really is this final point, the construction of replicas of the initial Wright Flyer, that increased the conflict in recent years. Some of these replicas were customized utilizing contemporary aerodynamic knowledge to enhance their particular trip faculties. But one successful replica ended up being built without getting therefore changed. The Wright Enjoy, through painstaking research of initial papers, photographs, and artifacts through the initial Flyer (performed just like an archaeological journey), is known to possess precisely and properly recreate it. This task had the stated intent behind building a precise reproduction regarding the initial plane, if it can really fly. Since it turned out, the aircraft did indeed make a few effective flights.

Much of the conflict for Santos-Dumont vs. the Wrights arose from difference between their methods to promotion. Santos-Dumont made their routes in public, usually followed by a lot of fanfare. In contrast, the Wright Brothers were really concerned with safeguarding their intellectual home making their early flights in remote locations and without many intercontinental aviation officials present. The protection of their flight has also been complicated by the jealousies of other US aviation enthusiasts and disputes over patents. In November 1905, the Aero Club of France discovered of this Wrights’ alleged journey of 24 miles. They sent a correspondent to analyze the Wrights’ records. In January 1906, people when you look at the Aero Club of France’s meeting were stunned because of the reports associated with the Wrights’ flights. Archdeacon delivered a taunting page into the Wrights, demanding they started to France and show on their own, although Wrights did not respond. Therefore, the aviation globe (that Paris had been the middle at the time) witnessed the merchandise of Santos-Dumont’s work first-hand. Because of this, numerous people, French alongside Europeans, dismissed the Wrights as frauds (like numerous others at the time) and assigned Santos-Dumont the accolade associated with "first to travel."

Regardless, early reports of Wrights’ activities and disclosure of crucial design features in their 1904 European patent filings definitely helped many plane developers in succeeding years, including Santos-Dumont. Furthermore, Santos-Dumont’s success was aided by improvements in motor power/weight proportion also improvements in materials and building methods that had taken place in past years.

There have been many devices that got up into the air in a small fashion and several variations of heavier-than-air titles to which varying amounts of credit being awarded by various groups. For instance, inside previous USSR Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski may also be paid as a "Father of Aviation", for their powered heavier-than-air machine going airborne (generally speaking seen as the second these types of flight because category) in 1884. The conflicts about the correct definition of "powered heavier-than-air flight" nevertheless go on. Like, pertaining to gliders fitted with tiny machines being utilized non-continuously; these debates never increase to types of take off methods. The problem of assisted takeoff are a concern with very early flights, however, since any help provided is much more significant for how long they were airborne for short flights.

In the same way some request to broaden the accomplishments of the 14-bis flights, there are certainly others just who seek to narrow all of them, even though this is less frequent. One critique is the fact that the low-altitude of which the 14-bis flew permitted the raise to-be augmented by ground-effect. The usually reduced flights of many aviation pioneers, including some of the Wrights preliminary flights, fall victim to a complex discussion over classifications of devices which can be assisted by this occurrence.

Additionally, there has been some concerns associated with the Aero-Club De France’s dispute of great interest concerning their participation with Santos-Dumont’s claim. The questions mainly arise from their partial familiarity with the Wrights and their involvement with Santos-Dumont.

Santos-Dumont as well as the wristwatch
The wristwatch had been invented by Patek Philippe, decades early in the day, but Santos-Dumont played an important role popularizing its use by men during the early 1900s. Before him these people were usually worn only by females, as men preferred pocket watches. As a result, Brazilians think about Santos-Dumont the creator for the wristwatch for males.

The story goes that in 1904, while celebrating his winning associated with Deutsch reward at Maxim’s Restaurant, Santos-Dumont complained to his friend Louis Cartier in regards to the trouble of checking his pocket view to occasion his performance during trip. Santos-Dumont then requested Cartier to come up with an alternate that could enable him maintain your hands regarding settings. Cartier visited work with the situation and also the result was a watch with a leather musical organization and a tiny buckle, to-be worn on wrist.

Santos-Dumont never ever became popular again without his personal Cartier wristwatch, and then he used it to check on his private record for a 220 m (722 ft) journey, attained in twenty-one seconds, on November 12, 1906. The Santos-Dumont view ended up being formally presented on October 20, 1979 at Paris Air Museum next to the 1908 Demoiselle, the last plane he built.

Cartier these days has a collection of wristwatches honouring Santos-Dumont labeled as Santos de Cartier.

Old age
Santos-Dumont continued to create and travel airplanes. His final flight as a pilot was made in Demoiselle on January 4, 1910. The journey ended in an accident, nevertheless cause ended up being never ever completely clear. There have been couple of observers and no reporters on the scene.

Santos-Dumont dropped really ill a few months later on. He experienced dual vision and vertigo that made it impossible for him to operate a vehicle, notably less fly. He had been diagnosed with several sclerosis. He suddenly dismissed their staff and sealed their workshop. His disease soon generated a deepening depression.

In 1911, Santos-Dumont relocated from Paris to your French seaside town of Bénerville in which he used astronomy as a spare time activity. A few of the local people, whom understood bit of their great popularity and exploits in Paris just a couple years earlier, mistook their German-made telescope and uncommon accent as signs (most likely false) which he had been a German spy who was monitoring French naval task. These suspicions fundamentally resulted in Santos-Dumont having his rooms searched by the French military police. Upset by ignominy of the charge, also depressed from his infection, he burned most of his papers, programs, and notes. Thus, discover small direct information available about his designs today.

In 1928 (some resources report, 1916) he left France to go back to their nation of beginning, not to come back to European countries. Their come back to Brazil had been marred by tragedy. Twelve people in the Brazilian scientific neighborhood boarded a seaplane using purpose of paying a flying welcome to the going back aviator on Cap Arcona. Rather, the seaplane crashed using losing all up to speed. Losing deepened Santos-Dumont’s developing despondency.

In Brazil, Santos-Dumont bought a little good deal privately of a mountain when you look at the city of Petrópolis, within the mountains near Rio de Janeiro, and built a little house truth be told there filled with imaginative technical gadgetry.

Debate with regards to personal life
Some conflict exists over Santos-Dumont’s exclusive life, particularly their sexual direction. Although he was an energetic member of the Paris social scene, there are no reports, community or exclusive, of their having been romatically associated with any person. It has led some to take a position that Santos-Dumont had been a homosexual. However, historians have actually mentioned that any event, with either a person or a female, would have been impractical to hold a secret given Santos-Dumont’s notoriety inside the time. This decreased any proof intimate entanglements have led some to speculate he was asexual.

Historians have actually noted that both Wright brothers, around whom a great deal controversy nevertheless exists vis-a-vis Santos-Dumont, in addition had personal everyday lives apparently without any overt sex. But no similar suggestions of feasible homosexuality have been made about them.

Santos-Dumond performed seem to have a specific affection for a married Cuban/American girl known as Aída de Acosta. He permitted the girl to travel his #9 airship (hence she likely became initial girl to pilot a powered plane.) and then he kept a photo of this lady on their work desk until his death.

Demise and beyond
Alberto Santos-Dumont — really sick, and said to be depressed over his several sclerosis in addition to using aircraft in warfare — is known having committed committing suicide by holding himself in the city of Guarujá in São Paulo, on July 23, 1932. He was hidden within the Cemitério São João Batista in Rio de Janeiro. There are numerous monuments to their work and his home in Petropolis, Brazil is currently a museum. He never married nor had any known kiddies.

Cultural influences
Santos-Dumont is a little lunar influence crater that lies in the northern end for the Montes Apenninus range within east side of the Mare Imbrium

The aviator gives their name to your city of Santos Dumont, into the condition of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Inside municipality is situated the Cabangu farm, in which he had been born. The Faculdades Santos Dumont is several exclusive greater discovering universities in the same town.

The city of Dumont, when you look at the state of São Paulo, near Ribeirão Preto is indeed called because it is found in which it once was one the largest coffee farms on earth, between 1870 and 1890. The farm was owned by Alberto Santos-Dumont’s daddy, a wealthy professional of French descent. It was sold in 1896 to a British business, the Dumont Coffee business.

The airport for domestic routes of Rio de Janeiro can be named after him (Santos Dumont Regional Airport)

The Rodovia Santos Dumont is a highway in the state of São Paulo.

The Brazilian Air power (Command of Aeronautics) concedes to crucial characters in the world of aviation the Santos Dumont Medal of Merit. Hawaii federal government of Minas Gerais has the same medal.

Réseau Santos-Dumont is the title of a cooperative institution network between France and Brazil, instituted by the French and Brazilian Ministries of Education in 1994, with 26 universities in each nation.

The American workplace of Naval Research of hillcrest, California features called certainly one of its analysis airships because the 600B Santos-Dumont.

The Historic and Cultural Institute of Aeronautics of Brazil has actually instituted the Santos Dumont Annual Prize of Journalism into the most useful reports in media about aeronautics.

Santos-Dumont functions as the inspiration and namesake for a little Coffee and Ice Cream Shop in Milford, New Hampshire.

Lycée Polyvalente Santos-Dumont is a lyceum in Saint-Cloud, France;

Thousands of streets, avenues, plazas, schools, monuments, etc., focus on the nationwide hero in Brazil.

From Bankrolling Casino ‘Wall Street’ to Bankrupting (virtually) Themselves
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It really is an instance of "shame on me personally," or perhaps "serve me right" for thinking too highly of myself.

I was really skeptical about the big American banks’ astronomical earnings in the early 2000s, and believed to myself those massive earnings make no sense and "i am maybe not placing money into their shares."

But after the housing/ banking/ credit crisis started in 2007, lender shares started a free-fall. By 2008, Citigroup shares choose to go down by over 50per cent from their pre-crisis highs. I thought my determination had paid off also it was a great time to get in. We began putting money into Citi shares. Really, as they say in the financial investment jargon, "bottom-fishing" is much like "catching a falling knife." If you’re perhaps not mindful, anticipate to get bloodied!

And boyd performed I previously drop huge on Citi?! After a 1-for-10 share consolidation (for example. reverse stock split) in-may 2011, my 450 shares became 45 stocks today, worth USD ,931 as of 2013-01-25, and I also’ve suffered a 83.5% loss.

A shareholder class-action lawsuit was released against Citigroup’s management over their mis-representation on number of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) the financial institution was subjected to. Citigroup decided to spend money of USD 0-million into the shareholders whom acquired Citigroup shares between 2007-02-26 and 2008-07-17. Evidently i am one of the investors contained in the settlement.

With countless shares outstanding and thousands of investors impacted and included in the settlement, I anticipate i might receive USD in compensation, easily’m happy!

The stock exchange is definitely some a gamble, therefore I knew the return might be good or unfavorable. That component I’m fine, it is the fact not one regarding the unscrupulous bank CEOs have ever before been recharged for fraud which makes me personally angry. Worse nonetheless, when they are let go, they nevertheless receives a commission enourmous amount in exit pay and stay really opulent life.

The settlement estimates that for every single qualified shareholder, they are able to expect most likely a payout of 19 dollars (USD) per share which they had.

Quite a tutorial in my situation eh?

Wonderful Free Annual Credit rating Report images

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A few nice free annual credit report images I found:

That Was the Year That Was – 1970
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In 1970, the self-made builder’s son Edward Heath came to power promising a "quiet revolution" that would turn around the fortunes of Great Britain PLC.

The 1970s began under Tory rule, with Ted Heath as Prime Minister. Yet it was a very different kind of Tory party. Heath was a liberal Conservative who believed in a “third way”. He was pro-union and pro-EEC, and launched the Department of the Environment. He favored devolution of power to Scotland and Wales. When Rolls-Royce aircraft engines was about to go bankrupt, he led a successful move to nationalize the company until it could be returned to a stable financial footing.

Then things started to go wrong, as they did almost immediately when council workers went on strike in October 1970 (a foretaste of the “winter of discontent” eight years later), Heath quickly buckled to the prevailing conventional political and economic wisdom. Failing industries were bailed out or nationalised. And as the government pumped up demand in a bid to contain rising unemployment, a succession of baroque incomes policies were conceived to keep a lid on inflation.

Of all post-war decades, the 1970s has undoubtedly had the worst press, but the truth is that most ordinary families in 1970s Britain were better off than ever. "With higher wages for the working classes, access to affordable housing, free health care, free higher education and low levels of crime, all in a much less unequal society, life then was superior to life as experienced by most of us today".

1970 you were likely to die at 68

You smoked heavily. You missed out on university. You didn’t take foreign holidays. You didn’t have a car. You had a job in a factory. And you were likely to die at 68.

It sounds like a pretty grim picture nowadays, but hold on a minute. That was probably you – at least if you were a man in 1970.

If you were a woman back in 1970, much of that catalogue might have applied to you too, and in addition, you were married and would have had your first baby before you were 25, and you were spending a fifth of the household income on food (whereas these days, your biggest expenditure will be on energy bills, probably for all those gadgets you own).

It shows that during the course of over four decades, our lives, while similar in broad outline, have changed in a myriad subtle ways: we are living longer, being educated for longer, being alone more, taking more holidays and are healthier in some ways (fewer of us smoke) but are less healthy in others (more of us are obese).

With the benefit of over 40 years’ hindsight, life in 1970 appears to have been ludicrously cheap. A loaf of bread cost 9p and the average weekly wage was around £32. Today, a loaf costs 53p and weekly wages are about £475. Property prices have also risen. In 1970, homebuyers could expect to pay £4,975 for a house. Today, their children would not get much change from £140,000.

It was a similar story on the roads. The Range Rover, which was launched in 1970, could have been yours for £1,998. Almost a quarter of a century later, a 4.4 litre Range Rover Vogue will set you back £57,700. The Mini, which celebrated its 11th birthday in 1970, cost around £600. Its redesigned descendant now sells for £10,500.

A glance at Britain’s social life in 1970 is equally intriguing.

A trip for two to the cinema cost less than 90p, compared with at least £9 today, while a bottle of plonk was about £1. Today it is £4.55. For those with more spirited and extravagant tastes, a bottle of whisky cost £2.69 back then, compared with £12 now.

Pub prices, too, seem foreign. A pint of lager in your local was 20p, a far cry from today’s average of £2.10. And cigarettes, which enjoyed a lot more popularity then, were 20p for 20. Today, the habit costs about £4.65 a pack.

Still, it’s not all doom and gloom. Prices have gone up but so has our spending power.

And some things have even risen for the better. In 1970, the average life expectancy in Britain was 72. Today, it is 77 – giving us five more years of spending.

Life expectancy is perhaps the most notable single change. In 1970, when Edward Heath had just become Prime Minister and The Beatles were breaking up, for men it was 68.7 years and for women it was 75 years; over 40 years on, these figures have shifted substantially. Male life expectancy is now 77.8 years, and for women it is 81.9 years. Doubtless the fall in heavy smoking has played a part in that. In 1974, 24 per cent of men and 13 per cent of women in Britain who smoked regularly were classed as heavy smokers, whereas in 2008 the figures were 7 per cent of men and only one in 20 women.

But not all of us have become more healthy as the years have gone by: many of us have piled on the pounds. Although figures recording obesity only go back 15 years, there is a clear increasing trend.

1970 Music

1970 Music continues to make significant impact with the largest ever rock festival held on the Isle of Wight with 600,000 people attending, including some of the biggest name in music including Jimi Hendrix and The Who. This is also the year The Concord makes it’s first its first supersonic flight. Another significant change is the age of voting is now lowered to 18 in the US.

The Isle of Wight Festival takes place . 600,000 people attend the largest rock festival of all time. Artists include Jimi Hendrix, The Who, The Doors, Chicago, Richie Havens, John Sebastian, Joan Baez, Ten Years After, Emerson, Lake and Palmer and Jethro Tull.

Jimi Hendrix dies of barbiturate overdose in London age 27

Janis Joplin dies in a cheap motel from a heroin overdose age 27

Simon and Garfunkel release their final album together, Bridge Over Troubled Water. The Title Track won the Grammy for song of the year.

The Beatles break up. By the end of the year, each member had released a solo album.

George C. Scott gives one of film’s most memorable performances in Patton. He won the Best Actor Oscar for his turn as the title character, but refused the gold statuette.

The first festival at Glastonbury

The first Festival was held on the day after Jimi Hendrix died, over a two day period and before long “word had got around”. It was the Blues festival at the Bath & West Showground that had inspired Michael Eavis to begin a festival of his own although on a smaller scale.

The first festival at Glastonbury was not free and was decidedly overshadowed by the 1971 event, probably for good reasons . This festival was very sparsely attended , despite having Marc Bolan , Ian Anderson, Keith Christmas , Quintessence , Stackridge , Al Stewart, Amazing Blondel and Sam Apple Pie on the bill- hmmmm, perhaps thats why so few people showed up. Not exactly household names – even in 1970 – although all very respectable acts in their own right .

Badly advertised, poor organisation , not exactly an auspicious start to one of the longest running rock festivals of all time. But it was a nice site and the precedent was set as regards having a festival in the area.

Apparently government health inspectors visited the site as part of a report they were compiling about health standards at rock festivals. Interestingly, after all these years of warnings about the health hazards of food /sanitary conditions at festivals, I have yet to hear of a severe outbreak of food poisoning occurring.

Acts included: Marc Bolan, Keith Christmas, Stackridge, Al Stewart, Quintessence

Attendance: 1,500.

Price: £1 including free milk from the farm.

1970 Timeline

1 January – The age of majority for most legal purposes was reduced from 21 to 18 under terms of the Family Law Reform Act 1969.

The half crown coin ceased to be legal tender.

The National Westminster Bank began trading following merger of National Provincial Bank and Westminster Bank.

Control of London Transport passed from the London Transport Board (reporting to the Minister of Transport) to the London Transport Executive of the Greater London Council, except for country area (green) buses which passed to London Country Bus Services, a subsidiary of the National Bus Company.

4 January – The Who drummer Keith Moon fatally runs over his chauffeur with his Bentley while trying to escape a mob outside a pub. The death is later ruled an accident.

16 January – John Lennon’s London art gallery exhibit of lithographs, Bag One, is shut down by Scotland Yard for displaying "erotic lithographs"

18 January – The grave of Karl Marx was vandalised by anti-Germanic racists at Highgate in London.

21 January – Fraserburgh life-boat Duchess of Kent, on service to the Danish fishing vessel Opal, capsized with the loss of five of the six crew.

22 January – A Boeing 747 landed at Heathrow Airport, the first jumbo jet to land in Britain.

26 January – Rolling Stone Mick Jagger was fined £200 for possession of cannabis.

Simon & Garfunkel release their final album together, Bridge Over Troubled Water. It tops the album chart at regular intervals over the next two years, and becomes the best-selling album in Britain during the 1970s.

February – Chrysler UK launched its new Hillman Avenger small family car, which would be built at the Ryton plant near Coventry and compete with the likes of the Ford Escort and Vauxhall Viva.

11 February – The film The Magic Christian, starring Peter Sellers and Ringo Starr, is premiered in New York City. The film’s soundtrack album, including Badfinger’s "Come and Get It" (written and produced by Paul McCartney), is released on Apple Records.

13 February – Garden House riot, Cambridge: A demonstration at the Garden House Hotel by Cambridge University students against the Greek military junta led to police intervention; eight students subsequently received custodial sentences for their part in the affair.

English band Black Sabbath released their self titled debut album in the U.K., credited as the first major album in the heavy metal genre.

14 February – The Who records Live at Leeds in Yorkshire, England.

19 February – The Prince of Wales joined the Royal Navy.

23 February – Rolls Royce asked the government for £50 million towards the development of the RB 211-50 Airbus jet engine.

28 February – Led Zeppelin perform in Copenhagen under the pseudonym The Nobs, to avoid a threatened lawsuit by Count Eva von Zeppelin, descendant of airship designer Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

2 March – Ian Smith declared Rhodesia a republic breaking all ties with the British Crown, four years after the declaration of independence. Wilson’s government refused to recognise the new state.

6 March – The importation of pets was banned after an outbreak of rabies in Newmarket, Suffolk.

12 March – The quarantine period for cats and dogs was increased to one year as part of the government’s anti rabies measures.

13 March – The Bridgwater by-election became the first election in which 18-year-olds can vote. Tom King won the election for the Conservative Party.

17 March – Martin Peters, who scored for England in their 1966 World Cup final win, became the nation’s first £200,000 footballer in his transfer from West Ham United to Tottenham Hotspur.

19 March – David Bowie marries model Angela Barnett.

21 March – British-born singer Dana wins the 15th annual Eurovision Song Contest for Ireland with the song "All Kinds of Everything".

23 March – Eighteen victims of thalidomide were awarded a total of nearly £370,000 in compensation.

1 April – Everton won the Football League First Division title.

10 April – Paul McCartney announced his departure from The Beatles.

11 April – Chelsea and Leeds United drew 2-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, forcing a replay.

16 April – Dr Ian Paisley entered the Parliament of Northern Ireland after winning the Bannside By-election.

18 April – British Leyland announced that the Morris Minor, its longest running model which had been in production since 1948, would be discontinued at the start of next year and be replaced with a new larger car available as a four-door saloon and three-door fastback coupe, and possibly a five-door estate by 1975.

29 April – David Webb scored the winning goal as Chelsea defeated Leeds United 2-1 in the FA Cup final replay at Old Trafford, gaining them the trophy for the very first time. Last year’s winners Manchester City clinched the European Cup Winners’ Cup with a 2-1 win over Górnik Zabrze of Poland in Vienna, Austria.

8 May – The Beatles’ last album, Let It Be, is released.

16 May – The Who release Live at Leeds which is their first live album. Since its initial reception, Live at Leeds has been cited by several music critics as the best live rock recording of all time.

19 May – The government made a £20 million loan available to help save the financially troubled luxury car and aircraft engine manufacturer Rolls Royce.

22 May – A tour by the South African cricket team was called off after several African and Asian countries threaten to boycott the Commonwealth Games.

23/24 May – Hollywood Festival, Newcastle-under-Lyme is staged featuring a line-up including The Grateful Dead, Black Sabbath, Free, and Jose Feliciano. Everyone is completely upstaged by the previously unknown Mungo Jerry, whose debut single "In the Summertime" becomes the best-selling hit of the year.

24 May – The Britannia Bridge, carrying the railway across the Menai Strait, was badly damaged by fire.

28 May – Bobby Moore, captain of the England national football team, was arrested and released on bail in Bogotá, Colombia, on suspicion of stealing a bracelet in the Bogotá Bracelet incident.

29 May – Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act abolished actions for breach of promise and the right of a husband to claim damages for adultery with his wife.

1 June – Harold Wilson was hit in the face with an egg thrown by a Young Conservative demonstrator.

2 June – Cleddau Bridge, in Pembrokeshire, collapsed during erection, killing four, leading to introduction of new standards for box girder bridges.

4 June – Tonga became independent of the UK.

10 June – Just a few months after the Conservatives had enjoyed opinion poll leads of more than 20 points, opinion polls were showing Labour several points ahead of the Tories with eight days to go before the general election. If Labour won the election, it would be a record third consecutive general election win for the party and would probably result in the end of Edward Heath’s five-year reign as Conservative leader.

13 June – Actor Laurence Olivier was made a life peer in the Queen’s Birthday Honours list. He was the first actor to be made a lord.

14 June – England’s defence of the FIFA World Cup ended when they lost 3-2 to West Germany in the Mexico quarter final.

17 June – The bodies of two children were found buried in shallow graves in woodland at Waltham Abbey, Essex. They were believed to be those of Susan Blatchford (11) and Gary Hanlon (12), who were last seen alive near their homes in North London on 31 March this year.

British Leyland created a niche in the four-wheel drive market by launching its luxury Range Rover, which was to be marketed as a more upmarket alternative to the utilarian Land Rover that had been in production since 1948.

David Storey’s Home premiered at the Royal Court Theatre.

18 June – The General Election was held, the first in which 18-year-olds could vote.

19 June – The General Election proved to have been won by Edward Heath’s Conservative Party by a majority of 30 seats, a major surprise as most of the opinion polls had shown that Harold Wilson’s Labour were likely to stay in power. Among the new members of parliament are Neil Kinnock and John Smith for Labour, and Kenneth Clarke, Kenneth Baker, Norman Fowler and Geoffrey Howe for the Tories.

21 June – British golfer Tony Jacklin won the U.S. Open.

22 June – The Methodist Church allowed women to become full ministers for the first time.

26 June – Riots broke out in Derry over the arrest of Mid-Ulster MP Bernadette Devlin.

29 June – Caroline Thorpe, 32-year-old wife of Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe and the mother of his two-year-old son Rupert, died in a car crash.

3 July – Three civilians were killed and 10 troops injured when British Army soldiers battled with IRA troops in Belfast.

4 July – 112 people were found dead among the wreckage of a British Airways Manchester to Barcelona aeroplane that went missing yesterday. The wreckage was found in the mountains of Northern Spain, and there were no survivors.

8 July – Roy Jenkins became deputy leader of the Labour Party.

12 July – Jack Nicklaus won the Open Golf Championship at St Andrews, defeating fellow American Doug Sanders in an eighteen-hole play-off.

15 July – Dockers voted to strike leading to the docks strike of 1970.

16 July – A state of emergency was declared to deal with the dockers’ strike.

16–25 July – The British Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh.

17 July – Lord Pearson proposed settlement of docks strike.

30 July – The docks strike was settled.

31 July – The last issue of grog in the Royal Navy was distributed.

9 August – Police battled with black rioters in Notting Hill, London.

20 August – England national football team captain Bobby Moore was cleared of stealing a bracelet while on World Cup duty in Colombia.

21 August – The moderate Social Democratic and Labour Party was established in Northern Ireland.

26–31 August – Third Isle of Wight Festival attracted over 500,000 pop music fans, with appearances by Jimi Hendrix, The Who, The Doors and Joan Baez.

27 August – The Royal Shakespeare Company’s revolutionary production of Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, directed by Peter Brook, opened at Stratford.

9 September – BOAC Flight 775 was hijacked by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine after taking off from Bahrain—the first time a British plane had been hijacked.

17 September – Jimi Hendrix makes his last appearance, with Eric Burdon & War jamming at Ronnie Scotts Club in London. Hendrix dies the following day from a barbiturate overdose at his London hotel, aged of 27.

18 September – American rock star Jimi Hendrix, 27, died in London from a suspected drug-induced heart attack.

19 September – The first Glastonbury Festival was held.

September – The Album musical Jesus Christ Superstar, by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, was released.

3 October – Tony Densham, driving the "Commuter" dragster, set a British land speed record at Elvington, Yorkshire, averaging 207.6 mph over the flying kilometre course.

5 October – BBC Radio 4 first broadcast consumer affairs magazine programme You and Yours; it would still be running forty years later.

12 October – After a debacled launch only 18 months previously, British Leyland announce a much improved Austin Maxi featuring a new gearchange, increased engine size and much improved trim, answering many of the critical points raised by the motoring press at the car’s original launch.

15 October – The government created the Department of Trade and Industry and the Department of the Environment.

Thames sailing barge Cambria, the last vessel trading under sail alone in British waters, loaded her last freight, at Tilbury.

The last narrowboats to carry long-distance freight commercially on the canals of the United Kingdom arrived with their last load, coal from Atherstone for a west London jam factory.

19 October – British Petroleum discovered a large oil field in the North Sea.

23 October – The Mark III Ford Cortina went on sale. At launch a full range of models are offered including 2 door and estate variants. Unlike previous models this Cortina was developed as a Ford Europe model sharing the floor-pan with the similar German Ford Taunus

25 October – The Canonization of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales by Pope Paul VI took place.

17 November – The first Page Three girl appeared in The Sun.

20 November – The ten shilling note ceased to be legal tender.

27 November – The Gay Liberation Front organised its first march in London.

10 December – Bernard Katz won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation".

26 December – Athlete Lillian Board, 22, died in Munich, West Germany, after a three-month battle against cancer.

31 December – The Beatles split up after 10 years.

Richard Branson started the Virgin Group with discounted mail-order sales of popular records.

The last forced child migration to Australia took place.

Nijinsky became the first horse for 35 years to win the English Triple Crown by finishing first in the Epsom Derby, 2,000 Guineas and St Leger.

Mathematician Alan Baker won a Fields Medal.

Trade union membership now accounts for nearly 50% of the workforce.

Computer Floppy Disks Introduced.

Oh the joys of the open road!
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Timeline of motoring history 1679 – 1939

1679
Practical French scientist Denis Papin invents the pressure-cooker or ‘digester’.

1690
Many before him have experimented with single charges of gunpowder as a means of moving a piston in a bore but, Denis Papin publishes his ideas for harnessing steam as an alternative, to achieve repeated cycles of movement. In doing so, he recognises the potential for a mechanical alternative to animals for mobilising carriages. He goes on to build the first steam engine, which is used to pump water to a canal running between Kassel and Karlshaven in Germany.

1698
English military engineer Thomas Savery uses Papin’s ‘Digester’ as the basis of a crude steam engine for pumping water out of flooded mine-shafts.

1712
Denis Papin, visiting London in the hope of finding patronage, writes to a friend reporting his failure and asking for financial support to pay for his return to Germany. Never heard of again, it is likely that Papin died in London in abject poverty and complete anonymity.

Thomas Newcomen, an "ironmonger" and blacksmith of Dartmouth, England, patents the "Atmospheric Steam Engine" and, together with John Calley starts to build and sell engines for pumping water out of mines.

1765
James Watt, while engaged in repairing a Newcomen engine, comes up with several improvements which substantially change its method of operation and increase its efficiency. In so doing he lays a firm foundation for the design of all steam engines yet to come.

1769
In Paris, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, a military engineer, demonstrates a self propelled steam vehicle – the first on record. The French government requests Cugnot to design and build a larger vehicle, capable of moving large amounts of artillery.

1770
At the French government’s immense cost, Cugnot builds ‘Fardier’ a large three- wheeled artillery carriage and creates history’s first motor accident by knocking down part of a wall.

1787
Oliver Evans of Maryland patents a steam engine for the use in powering carts and carriages.

1801
Richard Trevithick, an early pioneer of the Steam Railway, builds the first successful motor vehicle, and drives it through Camborne, Cornwall. Four days later it is destroyed by fire.

1803
Trevithick builds a second steam powered carriage, which makes several successful runs through the streets of London. Unfortunately it also frightens horses and kindles considerable public hostility.

1805
In 1804 Oliver Evans, builds the world’s first amphibious vehicle, ‘Orukter Amphibolas’, a steam powered dredger on wheels, for the Philadelphia Health Service. In July of 1805 it makes a one and a half mile journey from Central-Square to the banks of the Schuykill. It weighs 20 tons and is powered by a 5 HP twin cylinder beam engine driving both the paddle and 2 wheels. With no method of steering on land, the vehicle is much more successful as a boat.

1807
In Switzerland, Francois Isaac de Rivaz builds, and demonstrates the first working internal combustion engine. It is fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and reliant on a foot-operated exhaust valve. Mounted on small trolley, travels just a few metres.

1816
Concerned about the number of people being killed by exploding steam engines Reverend Robert Stirling invents and patents an alternative which is not only safer but also much more efficient. It runs on hot air and rotation is caused by heat differentials as it passes between various parts of the engine. It can use a number of alternative fuels to heat the air and, in spite of its improved safety and superior efficiency, it remains largely ignored for use in vehicles.

1826
Samuel Brown patents and builds his "gas-and-vacuum" engine. It has two cylinders linked by a rocking beam, with a capacity of 8,800cc and an output of just 4hp. The engine powering a carriage successfully drives up Shooters Hill at Blackheath, on the outskirts of London.

1829
Goldsworthy Gurney, having built his ‘London and Bath’ steam coach, sets out on the world’s first long distance coach service, a round trip from London to Bath and back. While the outward journey is marked by many breakdowns the return journey is accomplished in ten hours at an average speed of 8.4 miles per hour. Gurney is later to be the inventor of the theatrical ‘Limelight’.

1830
A regular steam omnibus service is established between Stratford, East London, and Paddington, West London by Walter Hancock. Using ‘Infant’, his second steam carriage.

1831
Sir Charles Dance sets up the world’s first scheduled passenger service by automobiles between Gloucester and Cheltenham, using three Gurney steam carriages. It operates for just a few months.

1834
In London, Walter Hancock sets up a chain of garages to service his passenger carrying steam omnibuses en route between their destinations.

1845
Robert William Thomson of Stonehaven, Scotland patents the world’s first vulcanized rubber pneumatic tyre. It is well received on trials in London but does not reach production for fear of its cost.

1859
Belgian J. J. Etienne Lenoir builds the worlds first practicable internal combustion engine running on a mixture of coal gas and air and using a ‘jumping-spark’ ignition system. A company is formed in Paris to develop the engine further.

1860
Le Monde Illustre. Devotes an article to J. J. Etienne Lenoir’s first gas- engined carriage.
First oil well in USA is drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania.

1862
French engineer Alphonse Beau de Rochas, patents the four-stroke cycle used in most modern internal combustion engines.

1863
Lenoir demonstrates a second carriage, powered by a 1.5hp ‘liquid hydrocarbon’ engine. Several six-mile journeys are successfully completed between Paris and Vincennes.

1864
Alexander II Tsar of Russia buys one of Lenoir’s carriages making it the first export sale of a car in history.

1865
Britain’s government introduces the ‘Locomotives on Highways Act’ more widely known as the ‘Red Flag Act’. This requires that all mechanically powered road vehicles must have three drivers, must be limited to 4 mph on the open road and 2 mph in town and, must be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag, to warn the public.

1866
In Germany Nikolaus August Otto patents a "free-piston" atmospheric engine.

1868
First steam driven vehicle ‘Cornubia’, exported to India.

1872
Nikolaus Otto and Eugen Langen form N.A. Otto & Cie to produce the ‘free-piston’ engine.

1877
The smooth-running "Otto silent" engine is patented in Germany as employees, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach prepare it for production.

1879
An initial ‘master patent’ for the automobile is filed in the United States by engineer and Patents Lawyer George B. Selden. He extends his application period for many years, by filing many amendments to delay its issue. Meanwhile he struggles to establish his own production capability.

1885
A petroleum (gasoline) powered four stroke engine is used to adapt a horse carriage by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach.

French inventor Ferdinand Forest, builds an opposed-piston engine with low tension magneto ignition and a spray carburettor.

1886
Nicolaus Otto fails to obtain a patent covering his four-stroke engine because of Alphonse Beau de Rochas’ 1862 patent in France. Nevertheless we still refer to the four-stroke principle as the Otto cycle

Carl Benz’s three wheeler, makes its first successful runs. This is the first petroleum powered car to be designed from scratch, rather than adapted from a horse-drawn carriage.

1888
John Boyd Dunlop a Scottish Veterinary Surgeon living in Belfast, re-invents and re-patents the pneumatic tyre without knowledge of the previous work and patent of fellow Scott Robert William Thomson.

In the UK, Brighton inventor Magnus Volk begins production of electric carriages. His electric Railway still runs along the coast today.

Karl Benz starts to produce three wheeled, petroleum powered cars; sales are slow.

1889
Daimler sells rights for France to a new V configured twin cylinder engine to Panhard & Levassor

1890
With no thought of manufacturing cars, Panhard & Levassor licence the Peugeot ironmongery business to use the engine in automotive applications.

Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft set up by Gottleib Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany.

1891
M. Levassor decides to build cars after all, designing and building a rear engined car.
Frederick R. Simms acquires Daimler rights in the UK, with the intention of using the engines to power motor launches.

Ferdinand Forest produces the world’s first four cylinder petrol engine with mechanical valve operation for use in boats and goes on to build the world’s first six cylinder engine for the same purpose. The marine application ensures that his contribution to motoring history is ignored.

1892
Levassor introduces a new design of motor car which is to become the template for the vast majority of designs for many years to come. Four wheels, front mounted engine, sliding gear transmission and rear wheel drive. At first this configuration is known as Systeme Panhard.

1893
Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James Frank Duryea of Springfield, Massachussetts build their first motor buggy, Charles having an established background in the cycle trade. They are credited with being the first in America to build a practicable automobile.

Karl Benz introduces the "Viktoria", powered by a 3hp petroleum (gasoline) engine with a top speed of 11mph. Forty-five cars are in this year.

1894
After many years of financial difficulty, Karl Benz begins ‘mass production’ of two models, the Velo and the Viktoria.

Henry G. Morris and Pedro Salom of Philadelphia open America’s first car factory to build Electrobat electric cars.

The Apperson brothers and Elwood Haynes of Kokomo, Indiana collaborate to build an automobile.

1895
Karl Benz sells 135 motor vehicles in the year.

Sir David Salomans organises Britain’s first exhibition of motor vehicles in the open air in October at Tunbridge Wells, Kent.

In November, the first indoor exhibition of cars in Britain takes place, at the Stanley Cycle Show.
Selden’s master patent is finally granted in the USA, after years of revision.

First petrol engine produced by De Dion and Bouton.

The Autocar magazine founded by J. J. Henry Sturmey.

Frederick, Frank and George Lanchester build the first all-British, four-wheel, petrol driven car featuring many technical innovations. Lanchester will go on to rival Rolls Royce in their reputation for excellence, but fail to achieve long-term commercial success.

A Peugeot L’Eclair becomes the first car to run on Michelin pneumatic tyres.

1896
The British Motor Industry is born when Harry J. Lawson launches the Daimler Motor Company in Coventry.

British Parliament repeals the Red Flag Act and raises the speed limit to l4mph; Lawson organises the first Run from London to Brighton to commemorate ‘Emancipation Day’.

Duryea brings two cars over to Europe for the Emancipation Day event.

American pioneers Henry Ford, Charles Brady King, Ransome Eli Olds and Alexander Winton all complete and test their first cars.

The first car to be sold with pneumatic tyres as standard is Leon Bollee’s Voiturette.

Harry J. Lawson forms the Great Horseless Carriage Company (later the Motor Manufacturing Company) to acquire the rights to all important Continental patents, in an effort to gain control of the British motor industry.

1897
Emil Jellinek, financier, international diplomat and racing enthusiast, orders the first four cylinder Daimler.

The first commercially available steam cars are manufactured by twin brothers Francis and Freelan Stanley.

Alexander Winton a bicycle manufacturer of Cleveland, Ohio incorporates the Winton Motor Carriage Co.

The Pope Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut, at the time the USA’s largest cycle manufacturer, begin their attempt to build cars in large quantities.

A British-built Daimler is driven from John O’Groats to Lands End by Henry Sturmey, at the time a journalist with ‘The Autocar’ magazine.

The Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland is founded by F.R.Simms.
Emile Levassor dies.

R.E. Olds and a group of Lansing businessmen invest ,000 to create The Olds Motor Vehicle Company.

Leon Serpollet builds his first steam car.

1898
James Ward Packard of Warren, Ohio, becomes one of the earliest buyers of a Winton and, immediately unsatisfied with it’s reliability and performance begins literally, to ‘pick it to pieces’.

Rudolf Diesel is granted a patent for an internal combustion engine where extremely high compression of the fuel/air mixture causes self-ignition, rather than a spark.

Using a De Dion engine and axle, Louise Renault builds his first car.

Panhard-Levassor adopt the steering wheel instead of the tiller.

De Dion Bouton introduce the Voiturette.

Coventry-Daimler release their first four cylinder model.

The first Napier power unit is built.

1899
FIAT, Sunbeam, Wolseley, Albion and Isotta Fraschini begin production.

In the USA, the Olds Motor Vehicle Company also begins Production.

1900
Gottlieb Daimler dies at the age of 66. One week later Emil Jellinek secures an exclusivity agreement with Wilhelm Maybach. The cars in which he has been involved and will be marketing, will now be named after his favourite daughter, Mercedes.

The Thousand Miles Trial is organised by the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland to demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the motor vehicle to the British public. Many people will see a car for the first time in their lives.

American manufacturers produce a total of 4192 cars, each selling at an average price of 00.00.

1901
With an exclusive sales agreement and some technical input from Emile Jellinek , Daimler at Bad-Cannstatt introduces the new ‘Mercedes’. Jellinek will both race these cars with great success and sell them to a personally selected clientele.

Ettore Bugatti wins the Milan Grand Prix in his Type 2 and exhibits it at the Milan International Motorcar Exhibition. He is approached by de-Dietrich of Niederbronn in the Alsace region and offered a licensing deal to design cars for them. Since he is still legally a minor, his father Carlo signs the contract.

The Olsmobile ‘Curved Dash’ model becomes the world’s first mass-produced petroleum (gas) powered car.

John Starley dies, without seeing a Rover car go into production.

1902
Packard patents and introduces the "H" gearshift pattern so familiar today.

Dr E C Lehwess sets out on the first attempt to drive around the world in a specially adapted Panhard Levassor bus named "Passe Partout" ("Anything Goes"). With no time-limit his intended route runs from London, through Europe to Asia, from where the bus will be shipped to California to cross the USA and return to England by ship across the Atlantic Ocean. He gets as far as Nizhni Novgorod in Eastern Russia, where "Passe Partout" and the attempt, have to be abandoned in deep snow.

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders is founded by Frederick R. Simms.

1903
The British Parliament passes the Motor Car Act, raising the speed limit from 12 to 20mph, introducing driving licences and establishing the registration and numbering of cars.

17,000 vehicles are now registered in Britain.

Henry Ford finally succeeds in raising ,000.00 to found the Ford Motor Company and begin production and sales of his Model A runabout.

In Detroit, the Cadillac Motor Car Company is founded by precision engineer Henry Martyn Leland.

In London, The Vauxhall Iron Works builds its first car.

Marcel Renault is one of 10 drivers killed in that year’s Paris-Madrid race.

Administration of George B. Selden’s ‘master patent for the automobile’ is taken over by the newly formed Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, with the intention of pursuing numerous manufacturers for infringement, to gain compensation and future royalties.

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders hosts its first motor show at the Crystal Palace, in South London.

The first completely new Benz, the front engined ‘Parsifal 12/18’, is designed by Marius Barbarou and introduced to compete with the very successful Mercedes Simplex.

A six cylinder, four wheel drive racing car is introduced by Dutch manufacturer Spyker.

The first six cylinder production car is introduced by Napier.

James H. Whiting, co-founder of the Flint Wagon Works, persuades his partners to buy the Buick Motor Car Company, at that time a very small car manufacturer. Whiting becomes President and David Buick is General Manager.

Mary Anderson is granted a patent for a handle-operated windshield wiper, originally intended to help the streetcar drivers of New York.

1904
On January 1st, The Motor Car Act becomes law in Great Britain.

Having built his first motor car Henry Royce meets Charles Stewart Rolls, already successful in the sales of quality cars in London and Royce agrees to manufacture a range of cars exclusively for sale by CS Rolls & Co. They are to be known by the name Rolls-Royce.

The Sturtevant brothers of Boston, Massachusetts invent the first automatic gearbox. With two forward speeds it is dependent on rotation by the engine, of centrifugal weights which, all too often disintegrate. The unit may not be a complete success but at least it points the way for future developments.

Ford begins to export cars to Britain.

Having invented the modern bicycle 18 years earlier, Rover embarks on the manufacture of cars.

De Launay Belleville is founded in Saint Denis sur Seine, central France, with Marius Barbarou as engineer.

William Crapo Durant, Co-owner of Durant-Dort Carriage Company, the USA’s largest carriage makers, is approached by James Whiting to promote his Buick automobiles. Durant becomes Buick’s General Manager.

Having refused to pay royalties to the Association of Licensed Automotive Manufacturers for infringement of George B Selden’s master patent, Henry Ford is taken to court. Key to Ford’s defence is that Selden has never even built a car and the validity of the patent is therefore questionable. The judge orders Selden to build a car in accordance with his patent.

1905
Herbert Austin, resigns as general manager of Wolseley to set up his own company at Longbridge, Birmingham.

The American the market for cars is enlarged by the introduction of installment finance plans.

The Automobile Association is set up to represent the interests of British motorists finding themselves easy targets for Police officers keen to gain promotion based on the numbers of speeding motorists caught and convicted!

1906
The Royal Automobile Club (RAC) introduce a horsepower formula, largely based on the Cylinder bore of an engine.

The successful commercial collaboration between Henry Royce and C S Rolls results in the formation of the Rolls-Royce company and the launch of the 40/50hp six-cylinder ‘Silver Ghost’, soon to be hailed as ‘the best car in the world’.

Ford introduces the Model N at the New York Auto Show. Selling initially at 0,

The American car industry produces 33,500 cars.

Former Fiat test-driver Vincenzo Lancia sets up his own company in Turin with his friend and colleague Claudio Fogolin.

Britain exports a total of two cars per month to France while importing a total of 400 cars per month from France.

Otto Zachow and William Besserdich of Clintonville, Wisconsin, built the first successful 4-wheel-drive car.

1907
A year after its announcement, the price of Ford’s Model N had already risen to 0.

King Edward VII awards the Automobile Club the Royal accolade.

Willys-Overland is formed following the purchase of the Overland Company of Indianapilolis by John Willys.

Over 60,000 Cars are now registered in Britain.

A Rolls-Royce ‘Silver Ghost’ completes a 15000 miles test under supervision of the RAC, with just one enforced stop.

Also completing a 15,000 mile test is a 45hp Hotchkiss, wearing out 46 tyres in the process.

Otto Zachow and William Besserdich begin a company called the Four Wheel Drive Auto Co.

1908
Ford build the first Model T. This year’s production totals 8000.

Based on a previous, failed attempt to bring together America’s top four car manufacturers William Crapo Durant incorporates General Motors of New Jersey (GM) with a capital of ,000. Within 12 days the company has raised ,000,000 cash, enough to buy Buick and Oldsmobile in quick succession.

In London The Royal Automobile Club awards Cadillac the Dewar Trophy following the dismantling, mixing and re-assembly of components from three ‘Model K’ runabouts.

1909
The General Motors Company acquires Cadillac and Oakland.

William Durant fails to raise the .5 million needed to buy Ford.

Louis Chevrolet drives a Buick to victory in the fifth "Indy car" race at Crown Point, Indianapolis.

Fernand Renault is dies after a long illness. Now alone at the helm, Louis Renault changes the company’s name to Les Automobiles Renault.

While still engaged by de Deutz, Ettore Bugatti and good friend Felix Kortz build the ‘Type 10’ in the cellar of his house, probably as an expression of his imminent intention to establish his own production.

Joseph Sankey & Sons of Bilston, near Woverhampton, specialists in steel pressings, commence production of stamped body panels for Arrol-Johnston cars.

Joseph Sankey & Sons develop the first detachable pressed-steel artillery wheel, a considerable improvement over the wooden carriage wheels which most vehicles had used previously.

Louis Coatalen is appointed as chief engineer at Sunbeam and starts to design cars capable of achieving records at Brooklands race track in Surrey.

H.F.S. Morgan builds his first car, a three-wheeler with a twin cylinder 8hp engine, seating for one, tiller steering and patented ‘sliding pillar’ independent front suspension.

Charles Franklin Kettering, having already invented, designed and developed the electric cash register, bank accounting machines and a superior ignition system for cars while working for NCR, sets up Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco). 8000 ignition systems are supplied to Cadillac in his first year of production.

1910
De Dion-Bouton introduces the first "mass-produced" V8 engine in the world.

Automobile production in the Untied States reaches 181,000.

The proposal to place a tax on petrol is rejected by the British Parliament.

Charles Stewart Rolls is killed at the age of 33, when his biplane crashes during a flying competition in Bournemouth.

The RAC devises the horsepower ratings by which cars in Britain are taxed.

Wireless radio is installed in a car with considerable effect although the equipment is very bulky.

Having spent the past 9 years designing cars for deDeutz and Mathis-Hermès, Ettore Bugatti sets up his own factory at Molsheim in the Alsace region (German territory until 1919, French thereafter) and starts production of his ‘Type 11’.

Crossley, Arrol Johnston, Argyll and Isotta Fraschini offer four wheel braking.

1911
Burley Swiss racing driver and talented engineer Louis Chevrolet drives a Buick for Willam Durant in the first Indianapolis 500. A broken camshaft forces early retirement. Louis’s brothers, Arthur and Gaston, are also keen racing drivers.

Having been ousted from General Motors William Durrant hires Louis Chevrolet as a consultant to develop a high quality car and forms the Chevrolet Motor Company.

Ford opens its first factory outside the USA at Trafford Park, Manchester, UK. With an annual output of 3000 Model Ts, Ford soon becomes Britain’s biggest car maker.

Cadillac 20/30hp model comes with ignition, electric lighting and electric self-starting developed by Charles F. Kettering’s Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco).

The Selden Patent Case finally ends in victory for Henry Ford when the car built to Selden’s patent is a technical failure. The patent is found to be ‘valid but not infringed’ releasing Americas car manufacturers to sell their products without further interference from Selden.

1912
Prominent figure S. F. Edge resigns from the Napier company following a dispute. He agrees to stay out of the motor industry for 7 years in exchange for a £160,000.00 pay-off. Instead he turns to pig farming, cattle breeding and film production, all with considerable success.

Delco electric self-starters and electric lighting come as standard on all Cadillac models.

The first Chevrolet, the big, powerful and very expensive Classic Six, reaches production but its price places it well out of reach of the mass market which Durant needs to attract to build his new business.

Sunbeam causes a sensation by simultaneously entering two team of 3 litre cars in French races running at the same time. They come in 1st, 2nd and 3rd in Coupe de l’Auto for touring cars at Dieppe and 3rd, 4th, and 5th in the French Grand Prix against cars with engines of vastly greater cubic capacity. As a result, the virtually identical touring models sell very well.

Brothers W O and H M Bentley buy the London agency for French DFP cars from their employers and call their new business Bentley and Bentley.

1913
Packard achieves a significant step in the development of the differential by introducing the spiral-bevel ring and pinion set. This cuts noise levels dramatically.

Henry Ford trials moving conveyor belt techniques for magneto production.

Ford’s sales rise to 182,809 vehicles.

The Royal Automobile Club awards the Dewar Trophy to Cadillac for a second time, in recognition of the introduction of the electric self-starter and electric lighting.

William Morris introduces his I0hp Morris Oxford light car.

Congress is lobbied by the Lincoln Highway Association who want a transcontinental highway to be constructed across America.

Mechanical direction indicators begin to appear on some models.

Fiat builds 3251cars.

Renault build 9338 cars.

Louis Chevrolet falls out with William Durant, wanting his name to be associated with prestigious cars and resigns. By selling his stock Chevrolet has thrown away the opportunity to become a multi millionaire. Durant continues to grow Chevrolet sales by moving the range downmarket.

W O Bentley develops the aluminium-alloy piston for use in automotive engines and achieves a class record at Brooklands in an alloy-pistoned DFP.

1914
De Dion-Bouton’s V8 engine is now available in 3.5 litre, 4.6 litre and 7.8 litre capacities.

Ford introduces conveyor assembly line techniques to chassis production reducing unit production times from 12½ to 1½ hours.

Ford raises the daily pay of its production workers to an industry record of .

Ettore Bugatti designs and manufactures the world’s first series-produced 16-valve 4 cylinder engine.

British buyers can now choose between 200 makes of car.

The German Army’s advance on Paris is repulsed by troops ferried to the front line in Renault taxis.

W O Bentley is commissioned into the navy to develop aero-engines for the Royal Naval Air Service. The BR1 and BR2 radial engines, built at the Humber factory, prove extremely effective and Bentley passes his knowledge of alloy piston technology on to Ernest Hives who is also developing aero-engines at Rolls-Royce.

Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford set up a small sports-car manufacturing business in West London. Bamford’s early departure leaves Martin with the need for a new name. Success achieved at the Aston-Clinton Hill Climb course in the prototype car provides the ideal name. Aston-Martin is born!

1915
British Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald McKenna introduces a ‘temporary’ 33.33 % levy on luxury imports to contribute to the cost of the war. Commercial vehicles are excluded, as they are needed for the war effort. This levy becomes known as the "McKenna Duties".

Catillac introduces the first successful V8 engine in the United States.

Inspired by Sunbeam aero-engine designs, Packard introduce the Vl2 Twin Six.

Banker Nicola Romeo takes over Anonima Lombardo Fabbrica Automobili of Milan to create Alfa Romeo.

Ford give a .00 refund to every Model T customer in recognition of annual sales exceeding their target.

The British Admiralty Landships Committee, charged with development of an armoured fighting vehicle capable of crossing trenches and barbed wire to attack an enemy, appoint a Lincoln agricultural machinery manufacturers William Foster & Co. Ltd, to design and develop it. For the sake of secrecy the factory workers are told to refer to the project as ‘a water carrier for Mesopotamia’. Their nick-name for the project is still with us today – ‘The tank’.

1916
Windscreen wipers powered by vacuum from the engine’s inlet manifold begin to replace the manual version originally patented by Mary Anderson in 1903. Because inlet manifold vacuum varies with engine speed so does wiper speed.

C F Kettering’s Delco is sold to United Motors Corporation for ,000,000.00.

1917
Herbert Austin receives a knighthood.

Having founded Cadillac and stayed at the helm since the 1909 sale to General Motors, Henry Martyn Leland resigns and leaves with his son Wilfred C Leland, to found the Lincoln Motor Company and build Liberty aero-engines for use in WW1 fighter planes.

Engineer William Rootes is demobilised from the British Armed to set up a new plant at Maidstone, Kent to repair aeroplane engines instead of scrapping them. The war ends before the plant is fully operational.

1918
Emil Jellinek dies.

Car registrations in America exceed five million for the first time.

The Thomas B Jeffery Company is bought by Charles Nash and renamed Nash Motors.

United Motors Corporation is acquired by General Motors. As a result, C F Kettering is invited to organise direct General Motors Research Corporation and insists that its headquarters are established in Dayton.

1919
Andre Citroen, having decided the future lies in simple reliable cars for the mass market, begins production of his Model A.

Henry Ford pays out $l00 million to buy-out all the other stockholders in the Ford Motor Company.

S. F. Edge returns to the British motor industry by taking over AC cars.

The first straight eight production engine is introduced by Isotta Fraschini.

Walter P. Chrysler resigns his position as vice president of General Motors.

New aero influenced post war models introduced by Hispano Suiza, Guy, Enfield Allday.

WO Bentley, awarded an £8,000 gratuity for his wartime work on the design of aero-engines, uses it to establish Bentley Motors Ltd and develop his first sports-car.

Charles F Kettering’s Dayton Metal Products Co. is absorbed into General Motors, forming the core of GM’s new research division.

William and Reginal Rootes re-establish the family car sales business, Rootes Ltd. in Maidstone Kent.

Enzo Ferrari finishes ninth at the Targa Florio bringing him to the notice of Alfa Romeo.

1920
Half of all the motor vehicles in the world are Model T Fords.

The American car industry is hit hard by a sudden post-war sales slump – Most companies struggle, many go out of business and some are absorbed into the larger corporate conglomerates.

The merger of Sunbeam and Talbot-Darracq creates the STD group. The new organisation will fail to rationalise development programmes and share components, missing out on financial opportunities, building cars which compete with each other for market share.

William Durant is ousted from his position at the head of General Motors for a second and final time, when DuPont/Morgan banking interests gain a controlling interest. Alfred P. Sloan is placed in charge of the group’s affairs.

Duesenberg introduce the first production car with a straight eight engine and four-wheel hydraulic brakes.

Work starts on Britain’s first bypass roads, The Great West Road from Chiswick, West London and The Purley Way near Croydon.

350 French companies manufacture cars.

Louis Chevrolet’s Monroe racer wins the Indianapolis 500 with his brother Gaston at the wheel.

Gaston Chevrolet is killed in a racing accident on a boardwalk raceway in Beverly Hills, California.

C F Kettering, inventor and outstanding engineer and head of General Motors Research Corporation becomes a vice-president and GM board member.

Driving a modified Alfa Romeo production car in the Targa Florio, Enzo Ferrari finishes in second place.

1921
Ferodo introduces a dry-plate clutch using asbestos friction materials that do not burn out every few hundred miles.

The Motor Car Act taxes cars in Britain at £I per RAC horsepower. Because of the RAC formula this favours small-bore, long stroke engines used by British manufacturers. Sales of cheaper American imports which tend to use large-bore, short stroke engines are crippled. A Morris Cowley, rated at 11.9hp costs just £12 to tax, whereas a Model T is rated at 22.5hp and costs £23 per year. One variation is that pre 1914 cars pay only half the horsepower. One oddity is a complete exemption for cars used solely for taking servants to church or voters to the polling station!

Bentley Motors Ltd start production of the new Bentley 3 litre sports car at a factory in Cricklewood, London and the three racing Bentleys entered in the Tourist Trophy Race win the team prize.

Lincoln introduce theirV8.

To counteract a drop in sales Morris cuts prices by up to £I00. The ploy works effectively, with sales increasing from 1932 cars in 1920 to 3077 cars this year.

William Durant establishes Durant Motors, having raised million in loans.

Tommy Milton drives a straight-eight Frontenac, designed and built by Louis Chevrolet, to victory at Indianapolis. Two different Louis Chevrolet-developed machines have now won at Indianapolis in consecutive years.

1922
Ford buys financially troubled Lincoln.

In Britain Herbert Austin introduces the Seven.

Clyno begin car production in Wolverhampton.

Marconi begin experiments with wireless receivers in Daimler cars.

Ford produce over one million Model Ts.

Inspired by the strength of a ship’s hull in a storm Vincenzo Lancia devises the first car to feature a sheet metal unitary body structure. The Lancia Lambda also featured a V4 engine with twin overhead camshafts, independent front suspension and brakes on all four wheels.

Trico (USA) introduce electric windscreen wipers as a more speed-consistent alternative to vacuum-driven wipers.

Leslie Hounsfield’s Trojan Ltd of Croydon Licence production of his low-cost 2 stroke, four cylinder car to Leyland Motors.

Charles F. Kettering, (previously responsible for the electric starter) and his assistant T. H. Midgley develop tetraethyl leaded petrol to improve the quality of fuels available in the USA. This alone encourages the development of more powerful and efficient high-compression engines.

21 year old Motor Cycle enthusiast William Lyons meets motorcycle sidecar maker William Walmsley in Blackpool, England. Together they set up the Swallow Sidecar Company.

1923
De Dion-Bouton cease production of their V8 engine range.

Cecil Kimber builds his first MG, a Morris Cowley with flattened springs, a sports body and a rebuilt engine.

Coventry bicycle manufacturer Triumph, builds their first car, the 10/20hp.

Over 2,000,000 Model Ts leave Ford’s production lines.

Sunbeams came 1st, 2nd and 4th in the French Grand Prix.

While racing at the Circuit of Sivocci at Ravenna Enzo Ferrari is approached by Count Enrico and Countess Paolina Baracca, parents of deceased national hero Francesco Baracca. They give Ferrari Francesco’s squadron badge, a prancing horse on a yellow shield.

1924
Former General Motors Vice President, Walter P Chrysler, begins production of his own cars.

Car production times are cut dramatically when DuPont develop quick-drying enamels.

Napier give up the production of cars and concentrate on aero-engines.

The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are removed.

Sunbeam win the Spanish Grand Prix. No other British car will win a Grand Prix in the first half of the 20th century. Twin cam OHV engines become standard on the 3 litre Super Sports models.

Malcolm Campbell achieves an official Land Speed Record d 146mph in an 18 litre 12 cyl Sunbeam developing 350hp.

A Bentley Sport, driven by Sammy Davis and John Benjafield, wins the Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race for the first time.

1925
The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are reinstated and extended to include commercial vehicles.

Morris production of ‘Bullnose’ Oxfords and Cowleys hits 54,131.

Vauxhall Motors at Luton becomes a part of General Motors.

The 250,000th Ford Model T rolls out of Ford’s British factory and begins a celebratory tour.

Rolls Royce introduce the Phantom 1, their first new model since the introduction of the 1906 Silver Ghost.

The Triumph 13/30 becomes Britain’s first family car with hydraulic braking on all four wheels.

Malcolm Campbell raises the official Land Speed Record to 150mph, again in a Sunbeam car.

Sunbeam enters their new 3 litre Super Sports car for the Grand Prix d’Endurance (24 hours) at Le Mans. It is the only British car to finish, winning 2nd place overall and coming first in the 3 litre class. The parent company (The STD Group) takes out a large loan.

General Motors Research Corporation and its boss C F Kettering, move to Detroit.

1926
Cadillac introduce shatter-resistant glass.

Long retired from racing, Louis Chevrolet drives the official pace car for his last laps of Indianapolis Speedway. As a driver he has achieved 10 career Indy car wins and won over 27 major events, making him the most successful of the three racing Chevrolet brothers.

Following a trip to America William Morris is convinced that the future of the car revolves around all-steel construction and works with Edward G Budd to set up the Pressed Steel Company.

In Germany, Daimler Benz AG is formed by the long-planned (since 1911) merger between Benz and Daimler companies.

A 7136cc V12 sleeve valve engine is the main feature of the Coventry Daimler Company’s new Double Six model.

In London, the General Strike and resultant marches bring traffic to a halt.

London’s motorists see electric traffic lights for the first time.

Production of 300 cars a week makes Clyno of Wolverhampton Britain’s third largest car manufacturer.

Packard further refines the differential by introducing hypoid gears, virtually eliminating rear axle whine.

Major Henry Segrave sets a new Land Speed Record of 152mph in a 4 litre 12 cyl Sunbeam.

The Swallow Sidecar Company starts to build special bodies for the Austin Seven and changes its name to the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company. Beyond the Austin seven it also offers coach-built bodies on chassis by Morris, Fiat, Standard, Swift and others.

William and Reginald Rootes move their business from Kent to offices and showrooms at Devonshire House, Picadilly, in the heart of London’s West End. Within a matter of months they have built a network of branches across the UK, in the process, becoming Europe’s largest motor distributing company.

1927
Ford’s Model T comes to the end of the road after 19 years and fifteen million vehicles.

The first British all-steel body is produced by the Pressed Steel Company for the Morris Isis Six, a medium sized saloon.

William Morris acquires the failed Wolseley company.

Chevrolet becomes the top selling manufacturer in America as Ford reorganizes its production facilities for the Model A.

Chromium plating is pioneered by Studebaker and Oldsmobile.

Stanley brings production of its steam cars to an end.

Major Henry Segrave, sets a new World Land Speed Record of over 200mph driving a twin-engined 1000 hp Sunbeam.

1928
By now Britain’s largest car distributors, William and Reginald Rootes begin to acquire manufacturers, starting with Humber, Hillman and Commer.

Dodge is acquired by Chrysler for $I75,000,000.

In the face of fierce price competition from William Moris, Clyno introduce a £I00 8hp model and ‘hits the rocks’.

Cadillac introduces the synchromesh gearbox.

Britain’s first front wheel drive production car is introduced by Alvis.

A Bentley wins the Le Mans 24 Hours driven by Woolf Barnato and Bernard Rubin.

As a result of slumping sales many UK companies are become vulnerable

The Rootes brothers acquire a substantial interest in The Hillman Car Company and then take over Humber Ltd and it’s commercial vehicle brand, Commer.

1929
Karl Benz dies, aged 85.

David Dunbar Buick dies.

US car production reaches 5,337,087, a record that will stand until the I950s.

26.5 million cars are now registered in the USA.

Clyno ceases trading and its assets liquidated.

Armstrong Siddeley offer a Wilson pre-selector gearbox as an option.

Sir Dennistoun Burney, the man behind the development of R100 airship, applies his aerodynamic expertise to car design and starts to make his Burney ‘Streamlines’ at his factory in Maidenhead. Each car features teardrop styling, space-frame construction, rear engine, all-round independent suspension and hydraulic brakes.

Bentley win the Le Mans 24 Hours for the second year in succession with a Speed Six driven by Woolf Barnato and Henry Birkin.

While continuing to work for Alfa Romeo, Enzo Ferrari forms the Scuderia Ferrari, a club/team for gentlemen-racers with the aim of organizing racing for members.

1930
Daimler fit fluid flywheels in conjunction with pre-selector gearboxes to produce semi automatic transmission.

Cadillac introduces a 7.4 litre VI6.

Economic depression causes a fall in car sales.

Henry Royce receives a knighthood.

In the bar of the Old Ship Hotel in Brighton following the annual ‘London to Brighton Run’, three participants decide to form the Veteran Car Club to help its members preserve the veteran and Edwardian cars which form a record motoring’s early history.

The 20mph speed limit, which has been ignored by motorists and police alike for many years, is abolished by the British Parliament.

In Britain, third party insurance becomes compulsory.

Larger Morris cars come with hydraulic brakes.

Walter Wilson introduces the Wilson Preselector gearbox based on a planetary manual transmission system like that used in the Ford Model T.

Bentley wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for the fourth year in succession with a Speed Six driven by Woolf Barnato and Glen Kidston.

1931
The Vauxhall Cadet 2 litre six, is the first car in Europe to feature a synchromesh gearbox.

Bentley Motors goes into liquidation. Napier are interested in buying, but are outbid by Rolls Royce who form Bentley Motors (1931) Limited.

Daimler acquire Lanchester Britain’s oldest motor manufacturer.

The Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company introduces its first cars, the SS1 and SS2. The larger SS1 is based on a modified Standard chassis and Standard six-cylinder engine. The smaller SS2 has a four-cylinder engine.

As the first fruit of the Rootes Group acquisition, Hillman introduces the Wizard with a choice of either 2.1 or 2.8 litre engines. It is not a great sales success.

1932
After years of struggling to survive De Dion-Bouton goes out of business.

Oldsmobile and Packard models feature automatic chokes.

Ford of Britain moves it’s plant and machinery from Trafford Park, Manchester to its new factory at Dagenham on the Eastern outskirts of London over one weekend without losing any production.

Ford design their first car for the European market, the 8hp model Y, in Dearborn.

Ford facelift the Model A and offer it with a mass-produced V8 engine. Sales in the first year exceed 300,000.

Hillman introduces the Minx, small family saloon, which proves to be extremely popular.

1933
William Lyons Changes the name of the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company to SS Cars Limited, taking on the role of managing director.

Ford looses its grip on the American market, dropping to third place behind General Motors and the Chrysler Corporation.

1934
REO introduce the Reo Self-Shifter, actually two transmissions connected in series. The first shifts automatically due to the engagement of a multi-disc centrifugal clutch mechanism. The second transmission is shifted manually to engage a lower gear.

Under both the Chrysler and DeSoto brands Chrysler introduces the revolutionary ‘Airflow’ ‘streamline’ family saloons with aerodynamic unitary sheet-steel body construction and an automatic overdrive.

In Britain a 30mph limit is imposed in built-up areas by Transport Minister Leslie Hore Belisha, pedestrian (Zebra) crossings are introduced, illuminated by a flashing orange (Belisha) beacon and new drivers are required to pass a test.

Morris Motors’ first conveyor assembly line is installed at Cowley and Sir William Morris becomes Baron Nuffield.

General Motors put the successful racecar designer and financial failure, Louis Chevrolet on their payroll in recognition of their use of his name.

Ferdinand Porshe approaches the German Reich government with proposals for a car for the German masses – a Volkswagen. Massive government investment follows.

Construction of the German Autobahn system commences, conceived by Adolph Hitler as a productive way of harnessing the unemployed masses.

British cars are now available with Metallic finishes.

Andre Citroen’s ambition gets the better of him as development of the ‘traction avant’ becomes so expensive that the company is virtually bankrupted. Michelin step in to prop up the business and Citroen looses control.

At SS Cars Limited, William Lyons boosts his company’s technical capabilities with the arrival of renowned engine specialist Harry Weslake. Soon after his arrival overhead valve cylinder heads become available.

1935
The depression of the 1930s means STD Motors are unable to sustain repayments of the large loan taken out in 1925 and are forced into receivership. The Rootes brothers outbid the smaller SS Cars Limited and the proud Sunbeam and Talbot names are destined to become up-market badge-engineered versions of Hillmans.

Ford of Britain introduces a cut price version of the 8hp Model Y saloon to sell at £I00.00.

There are now 35 million motor vehicles on the world’s roads according to an international census.

Triumph offer a screen wash system.

William Heynes joins SS Cars Ltd as chief engineer and the SS Jaguar is announced.

1936
Morgan, specialists in economical three-wheelers since 1909 introduce their first four wheeler, thanks to changes in tax and market readiness for ‘a fourth wheel’.

Fiat introduce the budget-priced 500A, featuring an aerodynamic shape, a ‘570cc engine and a full length sunroof. Its appearance earns it the nick-name ‘Topolino’ (Mickey Mouse) while a 55mph top speed and 55mpg economy makes it very popular, particularly in its home country.

Ferdinand Porsche begins development and construction of prototype ‘Volkswagens’ to demonstrate his concept to Adolf Hitler. The declared intention is that they will sell for £50.00 on a special finance plan.

At SS Cars Limited, William Lyons buys out William Walmsley and anounces the SS 100 and SS Jaguar models.

There are still 45 British car manufacturers.

Fifty-four percent of families in the United States now own a car.

1937
The first London Motor Exhibition is held at Earls Court, rather than Olympia, where it has been since 1905.

Buick and Oldsmobile introduce the Automatic Safety Transmission, using a conventional clutch for engaging forward or reverse and shifting automatically once underway.

800 miles of autobahn have been built in Germany at a cost of £56,000 a mile.

Chrysler perfects the fluid coupling, a major advance towards the fully automatic gearbox, but does nothing with it for the moment.

1938
The Volkswagen goes into production in Nazi Germany.

The British government raises the petrol tax from 8d to 9d per gallon and horsepower tax to £1.25d per hp.

The first small British saloon to feature independent front suspension is the Standard Flying Eight.

Riley is taken over by The Nuffield Group.

Morris launches the Series E 8hp Saloon at £128, the cheapest car in Britain.

As another War begins to look inevitable British car manufacturers are requested to set up Shadow Factories next to small-scale specialists who’s products, in much larger quantities, would be crucial to any war effort.

GM offer the Hydra-Matic hydraulically operated gearbox.

SS Cars Ltd, like many other British manufacturers turns production over to the war effort.

1939
Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany on September 3rd.

The British Government introduces petrol rationing. Petrol is exchanged for coupons allowing each motorist about 200 miles of motoring per month.

There are now two million cars on Britain’s roads.

The customized Lincoln Continental and the lower priced Mercury are introduced by Ford.

Triumph has to cease trading and is put into receivership.

See Timeline 1940 – 2008

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