Saturday, August 19, 2017
 

Rosetta Stone detail at the British Museum

Some cool dispute credit report images:

Rosetta Stone detail at the British Museum
dispute credit report
Image by Chris Devers
Pasting from the Wikipedia page on the Rosetta Stone:

[[[

The Rosetta Stone is an Ancient Egyptian artifact which was instrumental in advancing modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. The stone is a Ptolemaic era stele with carved text made up of three translations of a single passage: two in Egyptian language scripts (hieroglyphic and Demotic) and one in classical Greek. It was created in 196 BC, discovered by the French in 1799 at Rosetta, and transported to England in 1802. Once in Europe, it contributed greatly to the deciphering of the principles of hieroglyph writing, through the work of the British scientist Thomas Young and the French scholar Jean-François Champollion. Comparative translation of the stone assisted in understanding many previously undecipherable examples of hieroglyphic writing. The text on the stone is a decree from Ptolemy V, describing the repeal of various taxes and instructions to erect statues in temples. Two Egyptian-Greek multilingual steles predated Ptolemy V’s Rosetta Stone: Ptolemy III‘s Decree of Canopus, 239 BC, and Ptolemy IV‘s Decree of Memphis, ca 218 BC.

The Rosetta Stone is 114.4 centimetres (45.0 in) high at its highest point, 72.3 centimetres (28.5 in) wide, and 27.9 centimetres (11.0 in) thick.[1] It is unfinished on its sides and reverse. Weighing approximately 760 kilograms (1,700 lb), it was originally thought to be granite or basalt but is currently described as granodiorite of a dark grey-pinkish colour.[2] The stone has been on public display at The British Museum since 1802.

Contents

1 History of the Rosetta Stone
•• 1.1 Modern-era discovery
•• 1.2 Translation
•• 1.3 Recent history
2 Inscription
3 Idiomatic use
4 See also
5 Notes
6 References
7 External links

History of the Rosetta Stone

Modern-era discovery

In preparation for Napoleon‘s 1798 campaign in Egypt, the French brought with them 167 scientists, scholars and archaeologists known as the ‘savants’. French Army engineer Lieutenant Pierre-François Bouchard discovered the stone sometime in mid-July 1799, first official mention of the find being made after the 25th in the meeting of the savants’ Institut d’Égypte in Cairo. It was spotted in the foundations of an old wall, during renovations to Fort Julien near the Egyptian port city of Rashid (Rosetta) and sent down to the Institute headquarters in Cairo. After Napoleon returned to France shortly after the discovery, the savants remained behind with French troops which held off British and Ottoman attacks for a further 18 months. In March 1801, the British landed at Aboukir Bay and scholars carried the Stone from Cairo to Alexandria alongside the troops of Jacques-Francois Menou who marched north to meet the enemy; defeated in battle, Menou and the remnant of his army fled to fortified Alexandria where they were surrounded and immediately placed under siege, the stone now inside the city. Overwhelmed by invading Ottoman troops later reinforced by the British, the remaining French in Cairo capitulated on June 22, and Menou admitted defeat in Alexandria on August 30.[3]

After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt. Menou refused to hand them over, claiming they belonged to the Institute. British General John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, refused to relieve the city until de Menou gave in. Newly arrived scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton agreed to check the collections in Alexandria and found many artifacts that the French had not revealed.[citation needed]

When Hutchinson claimed all materials were property of the British Crown, a French scholar, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, said to Clarke and Hamilton that they would rather burn all their discoveries — referring ominously to the destruction of the Library of Alexandria — than turn them over. Clarke and Hamilton pleaded their case and Hutchinson finally agreed that items such as biology specimens would be the scholars’ private property. But Menou regarded the stone as his private property and hid it.[4]

How exactly the Stone came to British hands is disputed. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who escorted the stone to Britain, claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun carriage. In his much more detailed account however, Clarke stated that a French ‘officer and member of the Institute’ had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back-streets of Alexandria, revealing the stone among Menou’s baggage, hidden under protective carpets. According to Clarke this savant feared for the stone’s safety should any French soldiers see it. Hutchinson was informed at once, and the stone taken away, possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage. French scholars departed later with only imprints and plaster casts of the stone.[5]

Turner brought the stone to Britain aboard the captured French frigate HMS Egyptienne landing in February 1802. On March 11, it was presented to the Society of Antiquaries of London and Stephen Weston played a major role in the early translation. Later it was taken to the British Museum, where it remains to this day. Inscriptions painted in white on the artifact state "Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801" on the left side and "Presented by King George III" on the right.

Translation

Experts inspecting the Rosetta Stone during the International Congress of Orientalists of 1874

In 1814, Briton Thomas Young finished translating the enchorial (demotic) text, and began work on the hieroglyphic script but he did not succeed in translating them. From 1822 to 1824 the French scholar, philologist, and orientalist Jean-François Champollion greatly expanded on this work and is credited as the principal translator of the Rosetta Stone. Champollion could read both Greek and Coptic, and figured out what the seven Demotic signs in Coptic were. By looking at how these signs were used in Coptic, he worked out what they meant. Then he traced the Demotic signs back to hieroglyphic signs. By working out what some hieroglyphs stood for, he transliterated the text from the Demotic (or older Coptic) and Greek to the hieroglyphs by first translating Greek names which were originally in Greek, then working towards ancient names that had never been written in any other language. Champollion then created an alphabet to decipher the remaining text.[6]

In 1858, the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania published the first complete English translation of the Rosetta Stone as accomplished by three of its undergraduate members: Charles R Hale, S Huntington Jones, and Henry Morton.[7]

Recent history

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since 1802. Toward the end of World War I, in 1917, the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London and moved the Rosetta Stone to safety along with other portable objects of value. The Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

The Stone left the British Museum again in October 1972 to be displayed for one month at the Louvre Museum on the 150th anniversary of the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing with the famous Lettre à M. Dacier of Jean-François Champollion.

In July 2003, Egypt requested the return of the Rosetta Stone. Dr. Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo, told the press: "If the British want to be remembered, if they want to restore their reputation, they should volunteer to return the Rosetta Stone because it is the icon of our Egyptian identity". In 2005, Hawass was negotiating for a three-month loan, with the eventual goal of a permanent return.[8][9] In November 2005, the British Museum sent him a replica of the stone.[10] In December 2009 Hawass said that he would drop his claim for the return of the Rosetta Stone if the British Museum loaned the stone to Egypt for three months.[11]
Inscription

In essence, the Rosetta Stone is a tax amnesty given to the temple priests of the day, restoring the tax privileges they had traditionally enjoyed from more ancient times. Some scholars speculate that several copies of the Rosetta Stone must exist, as yet undiscovered, since this proclamation must have been made at many temples. The complete Greek portion, translated into English,[12] is about 1600–1700 words in length, and is about 20 paragraphs long (average of 80 words per paragraph):

n the reign of the new king who was Lord of the diadems, great in glory, the stabilizer of Egypt, but also pious in matters relating to the gods, superior to his adversaries, rectifier of the life of men, Lord of the thirty-year periods like Hephaestus the Great, King like the Sun, the Great King of the Upper and Lower Lands, offspring of the Parent-loving gods, whom Hephaestus has approved, to whom the Sun has given victory, living image of Zeus, Son of the Sun, Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah;

In the ninth year, when Aëtus, son of Aëtus, was priest of Alexander and of the Savior gods and the Brother gods and the Benefactor gods and the Parent-loving gods and the god Manifest and Gracious; Pyrrha, the daughter of Philinius, being athlophorus for Bernice Euergetis; Areia, the daughter of Diogenes, being canephorus for Arsinoë Philadelphus; Irene, the daughter of Ptolemy, being priestess of Arsinoë Philopator: on the fourth of the month Xanicus, or according to the Egyptians the eighteenth of Mecheir.

THE DECREE: The high priests and prophets, and those who enter the inner shrine in order to robe the gods, and those who wear the hawk’s wing, and the sacred scribes, and all the other priests who have assembled at Memphis before the king, from the various temples throughout the country, for the feast of his receiving the kingdom, even that of Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, which he received from his Father, being assembled in the temple in Memphis this day, declared: Since King Ptolemy, the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, the son of King Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoë, the Parent-loving gods, has done many benefactions to the temples and to those who dwell in them, and also to all those subject to his rule, being from the beginning a god born of a god and a goddess—like Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris, who came to the help of his Father Osiris; being benevolently disposed toward the gods, has concentrated to the temples revenues both of silver and of grain, and has generously undergone many expenses in order to lead Egypt to prosperity and to establish the temples… the gods have rewarded him with health, victory, power, and all other good things, his sovereignty to continue to him and his children forever.[13]

Idiomatic use

The term Rosetta Stone came to be used by philologists to describe any bilingual text with whose help a hitherto unknown language and/or script could be deciphered. For example, the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks (Obverse in Greek, reverse in Pali, using the Kharo??hi script), which enabled James Prinsep (1799–1840) to decipher the latter.

Later on, the term gained a wider frequency, also outside the field of linguistics, and has become idiomatic as something that is a critical key to the process of decryption or translation of a difficult encoding of information:

"The Rosetta Stone of immunology"[14] and "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of flowering time (fossils)".[15] An algorithm for predicting protein structure from sequence is named Rosetta@home. In molecular biology, a series of "Rosetta" bacterial cell lines have been developed that contain a number of tRNA genes that are rare in E. coli but common in other organisms, enabling the efficient translation of DNA from those organisms in E. coli.

"Rosetta" is an online language translation tool to help localisation of software, developed and maintained by Canonical as part of the Launchpad project.

"Rosetta" is the name of a "lightweight dynamic translator" distributed for Mac OS X by Apple. Rosetta enables applications compiled for PowerPC processor to run on Apple systems using x86 processor.

Rosetta Stone is a brand of language learning software published by Rosetta Stone Ltd., headquartered in Arlington, VA, USA.

The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 12,000 AD. Its goal is a meaningful survey and near permanent archive of 1,500 languages.

Rosetta Stone was also a pseudonym used by Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss) for the book "Because a Little Bug Went Ka-Choo"

See also

Rosetta (disambiguation)
Behistun Inscription
Decree of Canopus, stele no. 1 of the 3-stele series

Notes

• Allen, Don Cameron. "The Predecessors of Champollion", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 144, No. 5. (1960), pp. 527–547
• Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy. The Keys of Egypt: The Obsession to Decipher Egyptian Hieroglyphs. HarperCollins, 2000 ISBN 0-06-019439-1
Budge, E. A. Wallis (1989). The Rosetta Stone. Dover Publications. ISBN 0486261638. http://books.google.com/books?id=RO_m47hLsbAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=rosetta+stone&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U1_VaJ_NxkLmbZuYyDLji99DXwY6w
• Downs, Jonathan. Discovery at Rosetta. Skyhorse Publishing, 2008 ISBN 978-1-60239-271-7
• Downs, Jonathan. "Romancing the Stone", History Today, Vol. 56, Issue 5. (May, 2006), pp. 48–54.
• Parkinson, Richard. Cracking Codes: the Rosetta Stone, and Decipherment. University of California Press, 1999 ISBN 0-520-22306-3
• Parkinson, Richard. The Rosetta Stone. Objects in Focus; British Museum Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-7141-5021-5
Ray, John. The Rosetta Stone and the Rebirth of Ancient Egypt. Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-674-02493-9
Reviewed by Jonathon Keats in the Washington Post, July 22, 2007.
• Solé, Robert; Valbelle, Dominique. The Rosetta Stone: The Story of the Decoding of Hieroglyphics. Basic Books, 2002 ISBN 1-56858-226-9
The Gentleman’s Magazine: and Historical Chronicle, 1802: Volume 72: part 1: March: p. 270: Wednesday, March 31.

References

^ "The Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
^ "History uncovered in conserving the Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/h/history_uncovered_in_conservin.aspx. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Retrieved on 2008-25-6
^ See University of Pennsylvania, Philomathean Society, Report of the committee [C.R. Hale, S.H. Jones, and Henry Morton], appointed by the society to translate the inscript on the Rosetta stone, Circa 1858 and most likely published in Philadelphia. See later editions of circa 1859 and 1881 by same author, as well as Randolph Greenfield Adams, A Translation of the Rosetta Stone (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1925.) The Philomathean Society holds relevant archival material as well as an original casting.
^ Charlotte Edwardes and Catherine Milner (2003-07-20). "Egypt demands return of the Rosetta Stone". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/1436606/Egypt-demands-return-of-the-Rosetta-Stone.html. Retrieved 2006-10-05. 
^ Henry Huttinger (2005-07-28). "Stolen Treasures: Zahi Hawass wants the Rosetta Stone back—among other things". Cairo Magazine. http://www.cairomagazine.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=1238&format=html. Retrieved 2006-10-06. [dead link]
^ "The rose of the Nile". Al-Ahram Weekly. 2005-11-30. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/770/he1.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-06. 
^ [1] "Rosetta Stone row ‘would be solved by loan to Egypt’" BBC News 8 December 2009
^ "Translation of the Greek section of the Rosetta Stone". Reshafim.org.il. http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/rosettastone.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
^ "Text of the Rosetta Stone". http://pw1.netcom.com/~qkstart/rosetta.html. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
^ The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2000-09-06). "International Team Accelerates Investigation of Immune-Related Genes". http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2000/ihwg.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
^ Gordon G. Simpson, Caroline Dean (2002-04-12). "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of Flowering Time?". http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/5566/285?ijkey=zlwRiv/qSEivQ&keytype=ref&siteid=sci. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosetta Stone
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Text on the Rosetta Stone in English
Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Greek Text from the Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone in The British Museum
More detailed British Museum page on the stone with Curator’s comments and bibliography
The translated text in English – The British Museum
The Finding of the Rosetta Stone
The 1998 conservation and restoration of The Rosetta Stone at The British Museum
Champollion’s alphabet – The British Museum
people.howstuffworks.com/rosetta-stone.htm

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosetta_Stone"

Categories: 196 BC | 2nd century BC | 2nd-century BC steles | 2nd-century BC works | 1st-millennium BC steles | Ancient Egyptian objects in the British Museum | Ancient Egyptian texts | Ancient Egyptian stelas | Antiquities acquired by Napoleon | Egyptology | Metaphors referring to objects | Multilingual texts | Ptolemaic dynasty | Stones | Nile River Delta | Ptolemaic Greek inscriptions | Archaeological corpora documents

]]]

Rosetta Stone at the British Museum
dispute credit report
Image by Chris Devers
Pasting from the Wikipedia page on the Rosetta Stone:

[[[

The Rosetta Stone is an Ancient Egyptian artifact which was instrumental in advancing modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. The stone is a Ptolemaic era stele with carved text made up of three translations of a single passage: two in Egyptian language scripts (hieroglyphic and Demotic) and one in classical Greek. It was created in 196 BC, discovered by the French in 1799 at Rosetta, and transported to England in 1802. Once in Europe, it contributed greatly to the deciphering of the principles of hieroglyph writing, through the work of the British scientist Thomas Young and the French scholar Jean-François Champollion. Comparative translation of the stone assisted in understanding many previously undecipherable examples of hieroglyphic writing. The text on the stone is a decree from Ptolemy V, describing the repeal of various taxes and instructions to erect statues in temples. Two Egyptian-Greek multilingual steles predated Ptolemy V’s Rosetta Stone: Ptolemy III‘s Decree of Canopus, 239 BC, and Ptolemy IV‘s Decree of Memphis, ca 218 BC.

The Rosetta Stone is 114.4 centimetres (45.0 in) high at its highest point, 72.3 centimetres (28.5 in) wide, and 27.9 centimetres (11.0 in) thick.[1] It is unfinished on its sides and reverse. Weighing approximately 760 kilograms (1,700 lb), it was originally thought to be granite or basalt but is currently described as granodiorite of a dark grey-pinkish colour.[2] The stone has been on public display at The British Museum since 1802.

Contents

1 History of the Rosetta Stone
•• 1.1 Modern-era discovery
•• 1.2 Translation
•• 1.3 Recent history
2 Inscription
3 Idiomatic use
4 See also
5 Notes
6 References
7 External links

History of the Rosetta Stone

Modern-era discovery

In preparation for Napoleon‘s 1798 campaign in Egypt, the French brought with them 167 scientists, scholars and archaeologists known as the ‘savants’. French Army engineer Lieutenant Pierre-François Bouchard discovered the stone sometime in mid-July 1799, first official mention of the find being made after the 25th in the meeting of the savants’ Institut d’Égypte in Cairo. It was spotted in the foundations of an old wall, during renovations to Fort Julien near the Egyptian port city of Rashid (Rosetta) and sent down to the Institute headquarters in Cairo. After Napoleon returned to France shortly after the discovery, the savants remained behind with French troops which held off British and Ottoman attacks for a further 18 months. In March 1801, the British landed at Aboukir Bay and scholars carried the Stone from Cairo to Alexandria alongside the troops of Jacques-Francois Menou who marched north to meet the enemy; defeated in battle, Menou and the remnant of his army fled to fortified Alexandria where they were surrounded and immediately placed under siege, the stone now inside the city. Overwhelmed by invading Ottoman troops later reinforced by the British, the remaining French in Cairo capitulated on June 22, and Menou admitted defeat in Alexandria on August 30.[3]

After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt. Menou refused to hand them over, claiming they belonged to the Institute. British General John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, refused to relieve the city until de Menou gave in. Newly arrived scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton agreed to check the collections in Alexandria and found many artifacts that the French had not revealed.[citation needed]

When Hutchinson claimed all materials were property of the British Crown, a French scholar, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, said to Clarke and Hamilton that they would rather burn all their discoveries — referring ominously to the destruction of the Library of Alexandria — than turn them over. Clarke and Hamilton pleaded their case and Hutchinson finally agreed that items such as biology specimens would be the scholars’ private property. But Menou regarded the stone as his private property and hid it.[4]

How exactly the Stone came to British hands is disputed. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who escorted the stone to Britain, claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun carriage. In his much more detailed account however, Clarke stated that a French ‘officer and member of the Institute’ had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back-streets of Alexandria, revealing the stone among Menou’s baggage, hidden under protective carpets. According to Clarke this savant feared for the stone’s safety should any French soldiers see it. Hutchinson was informed at once, and the stone taken away, possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage. French scholars departed later with only imprints and plaster casts of the stone.[5]

Turner brought the stone to Britain aboard the captured French frigate HMS Egyptienne landing in February 1802. On March 11, it was presented to the Society of Antiquaries of London and Stephen Weston played a major role in the early translation. Later it was taken to the British Museum, where it remains to this day. Inscriptions painted in white on the artifact state "Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801" on the left side and "Presented by King George III" on the right.

Translation

Experts inspecting the Rosetta Stone during the International Congress of Orientalists of 1874

In 1814, Briton Thomas Young finished translating the enchorial (demotic) text, and began work on the hieroglyphic script but he did not succeed in translating them. From 1822 to 1824 the French scholar, philologist, and orientalist Jean-François Champollion greatly expanded on this work and is credited as the principal translator of the Rosetta Stone. Champollion could read both Greek and Coptic, and figured out what the seven Demotic signs in Coptic were. By looking at how these signs were used in Coptic, he worked out what they meant. Then he traced the Demotic signs back to hieroglyphic signs. By working out what some hieroglyphs stood for, he transliterated the text from the Demotic (or older Coptic) and Greek to the hieroglyphs by first translating Greek names which were originally in Greek, then working towards ancient names that had never been written in any other language. Champollion then created an alphabet to decipher the remaining text.[6]

In 1858, the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania published the first complete English translation of the Rosetta Stone as accomplished by three of its undergraduate members: Charles R Hale, S Huntington Jones, and Henry Morton.[7]

Recent history

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since 1802. Toward the end of World War I, in 1917, the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London and moved the Rosetta Stone to safety along with other portable objects of value. The Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

The Stone left the British Museum again in October 1972 to be displayed for one month at the Louvre Museum on the 150th anniversary of the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing with the famous Lettre à M. Dacier of Jean-François Champollion.

In July 2003, Egypt requested the return of the Rosetta Stone. Dr. Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo, told the press: "If the British want to be remembered, if they want to restore their reputation, they should volunteer to return the Rosetta Stone because it is the icon of our Egyptian identity". In 2005, Hawass was negotiating for a three-month loan, with the eventual goal of a permanent return.[8][9] In November 2005, the British Museum sent him a replica of the stone.[10] In December 2009 Hawass said that he would drop his claim for the return of the Rosetta Stone if the British Museum loaned the stone to Egypt for three months.[11]
Inscription

In essence, the Rosetta Stone is a tax amnesty given to the temple priests of the day, restoring the tax privileges they had traditionally enjoyed from more ancient times. Some scholars speculate that several copies of the Rosetta Stone must exist, as yet undiscovered, since this proclamation must have been made at many temples. The complete Greek portion, translated into English,[12] is about 1600–1700 words in length, and is about 20 paragraphs long (average of 80 words per paragraph):

n the reign of the new king who was Lord of the diadems, great in glory, the stabilizer of Egypt, but also pious in matters relating to the gods, superior to his adversaries, rectifier of the life of men, Lord of the thirty-year periods like Hephaestus the Great, King like the Sun, the Great King of the Upper and Lower Lands, offspring of the Parent-loving gods, whom Hephaestus has approved, to whom the Sun has given victory, living image of Zeus, Son of the Sun, Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah;

In the ninth year, when Aëtus, son of Aëtus, was priest of Alexander and of the Savior gods and the Brother gods and the Benefactor gods and the Parent-loving gods and the god Manifest and Gracious; Pyrrha, the daughter of Philinius, being athlophorus for Bernice Euergetis; Areia, the daughter of Diogenes, being canephorus for Arsinoë Philadelphus; Irene, the daughter of Ptolemy, being priestess of Arsinoë Philopator: on the fourth of the month Xanicus, or according to the Egyptians the eighteenth of Mecheir.

THE DECREE: The high priests and prophets, and those who enter the inner shrine in order to robe the gods, and those who wear the hawk’s wing, and the sacred scribes, and all the other priests who have assembled at Memphis before the king, from the various temples throughout the country, for the feast of his receiving the kingdom, even that of Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, which he received from his Father, being assembled in the temple in Memphis this day, declared: Since King Ptolemy, the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, the son of King Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoë, the Parent-loving gods, has done many benefactions to the temples and to those who dwell in them, and also to all those subject to his rule, being from the beginning a god born of a god and a goddess—like Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris, who came to the help of his Father Osiris; being benevolently disposed toward the gods, has concentrated to the temples revenues both of silver and of grain, and has generously undergone many expenses in order to lead Egypt to prosperity and to establish the temples… the gods have rewarded him with health, victory, power, and all other good things, his sovereignty to continue to him and his children forever.[13]

Idiomatic use

The term Rosetta Stone came to be used by philologists to describe any bilingual text with whose help a hitherto unknown language and/or script could be deciphered. For example, the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks (Obverse in Greek, reverse in Pali, using the Kharo??hi script), which enabled James Prinsep (1799–1840) to decipher the latter.

Later on, the term gained a wider frequency, also outside the field of linguistics, and has become idiomatic as something that is a critical key to the process of decryption or translation of a difficult encoding of information:

"The Rosetta Stone of immunology"[14] and "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of flowering time (fossils)".[15] An algorithm for predicting protein structure from sequence is named Rosetta@home. In molecular biology, a series of "Rosetta" bacterial cell lines have been developed that contain a number of tRNA genes that are rare in E. coli but common in other organisms, enabling the efficient translation of DNA from those organisms in E. coli.

"Rosetta" is an online language translation tool to help localisation of software, developed and maintained by Canonical as part of the Launchpad project.

"Rosetta" is the name of a "lightweight dynamic translator" distributed for Mac OS X by Apple. Rosetta enables applications compiled for PowerPC processor to run on Apple systems using x86 processor.

Rosetta Stone is a brand of language learning software published by Rosetta Stone Ltd., headquartered in Arlington, VA, USA.

The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 12,000 AD. Its goal is a meaningful survey and near permanent archive of 1,500 languages.

Rosetta Stone was also a pseudonym used by Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss) for the book "Because a Little Bug Went Ka-Choo"

See also

Rosetta (disambiguation)
Behistun Inscription
Decree of Canopus, stele no. 1 of the 3-stele series

Notes

• Allen, Don Cameron. "The Predecessors of Champollion", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 144, No. 5. (1960), pp. 527–547
• Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy. The Keys of Egypt: The Obsession to Decipher Egyptian Hieroglyphs. HarperCollins, 2000 ISBN 0-06-019439-1
Budge, E. A. Wallis (1989). The Rosetta Stone. Dover Publications. ISBN 0486261638. http://books.google.com/books?id=RO_m47hLsbAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=rosetta+stone&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U1_VaJ_NxkLmbZuYyDLji99DXwY6w
• Downs, Jonathan. Discovery at Rosetta. Skyhorse Publishing, 2008 ISBN 978-1-60239-271-7
• Downs, Jonathan. "Romancing the Stone", History Today, Vol. 56, Issue 5. (May, 2006), pp. 48–54.
• Parkinson, Richard. Cracking Codes: the Rosetta Stone, and Decipherment. University of California Press, 1999 ISBN 0-520-22306-3
• Parkinson, Richard. The Rosetta Stone. Objects in Focus; British Museum Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-7141-5021-5
Ray, John. The Rosetta Stone and the Rebirth of Ancient Egypt. Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-674-02493-9
Reviewed by Jonathon Keats in the Washington Post, July 22, 2007.
• Solé, Robert; Valbelle, Dominique. The Rosetta Stone: The Story of the Decoding of Hieroglyphics. Basic Books, 2002 ISBN 1-56858-226-9
The Gentleman’s Magazine: and Historical Chronicle, 1802: Volume 72: part 1: March: p. 270: Wednesday, March 31.

References

^ "The Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
^ "History uncovered in conserving the Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/h/history_uncovered_in_conservin.aspx. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Retrieved on 2008-25-6
^ See University of Pennsylvania, Philomathean Society, Report of the committee [C.R. Hale, S.H. Jones, and Henry Morton], appointed by the society to translate the inscript on the Rosetta stone, Circa 1858 and most likely published in Philadelphia. See later editions of circa 1859 and 1881 by same author, as well as Randolph Greenfield Adams, A Translation of the Rosetta Stone (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1925.) The Philomathean Society holds relevant archival material as well as an original casting.
^ Charlotte Edwardes and Catherine Milner (2003-07-20). "Egypt demands return of the Rosetta Stone". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/1436606/Egypt-demands-return-of-the-Rosetta-Stone.html. Retrieved 2006-10-05. 
^ Henry Huttinger (2005-07-28). "Stolen Treasures: Zahi Hawass wants the Rosetta Stone back—among other things". Cairo Magazine. http://www.cairomagazine.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=1238&format=html. Retrieved 2006-10-06. [dead link]
^ "The rose of the Nile". Al-Ahram Weekly. 2005-11-30. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/770/he1.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-06. 
^ [1] "Rosetta Stone row ‘would be solved by loan to Egypt’" BBC News 8 December 2009
^ "Translation of the Greek section of the Rosetta Stone". Reshafim.org.il. http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/rosettastone.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
^ "Text of the Rosetta Stone". http://pw1.netcom.com/~qkstart/rosetta.html. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
^ The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2000-09-06). "International Team Accelerates Investigation of Immune-Related Genes". http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2000/ihwg.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
^ Gordon G. Simpson, Caroline Dean (2002-04-12). "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of Flowering Time?". http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/5566/285?ijkey=zlwRiv/qSEivQ&keytype=ref&siteid=sci. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosetta Stone
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Text on the Rosetta Stone in English
Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Greek Text from the Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone in The British Museum
More detailed British Museum page on the stone with Curator’s comments and bibliography
The translated text in English – The British Museum
The Finding of the Rosetta Stone
The 1998 conservation and restoration of The Rosetta Stone at The British Museum
Champollion’s alphabet – The British Museum
people.howstuffworks.com/rosetta-stone.htm

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosetta_Stone"

Categories: 196 BC | 2nd century BC | 2nd-century BC steles | 2nd-century BC works | 1st-millennium BC steles | Ancient Egyptian objects in the British Museum | Ancient Egyptian texts | Ancient Egyptian stelas | Antiquities acquired by Napoleon | Egyptology | Metaphors referring to objects | Multilingual texts | Ptolemaic dynasty | Stones | Nile River Delta | Ptolemaic Greek inscriptions | Archaeological corpora documents

]]]

Rosetta Stone at the British Museum
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Image by Chris Devers
Pasting from the Wikipedia page on the Rosetta Stone:

[[[

The Rosetta Stone is an Ancient Egyptian artifact which was instrumental in advancing modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. The stone is a Ptolemaic era stele with carved text made up of three translations of a single passage: two in Egyptian language scripts (hieroglyphic and Demotic) and one in classical Greek. It was created in 196 BC, discovered by the French in 1799 at Rosetta, and transported to England in 1802. Once in Europe, it contributed greatly to the deciphering of the principles of hieroglyph writing, through the work of the British scientist Thomas Young and the French scholar Jean-François Champollion. Comparative translation of the stone assisted in understanding many previously undecipherable examples of hieroglyphic writing. The text on the stone is a decree from Ptolemy V, describing the repeal of various taxes and instructions to erect statues in temples. Two Egyptian-Greek multilingual steles predated Ptolemy V’s Rosetta Stone: Ptolemy III‘s Decree of Canopus, 239 BC, and Ptolemy IV‘s Decree of Memphis, ca 218 BC.

The Rosetta Stone is 114.4 centimetres (45.0 in) high at its highest point, 72.3 centimetres (28.5 in) wide, and 27.9 centimetres (11.0 in) thick.[1] It is unfinished on its sides and reverse. Weighing approximately 760 kilograms (1,700 lb), it was originally thought to be granite or basalt but is currently described as granodiorite of a dark grey-pinkish colour.[2] The stone has been on public display at The British Museum since 1802.

Contents

1 History of the Rosetta Stone
•• 1.1 Modern-era discovery
•• 1.2 Translation
•• 1.3 Recent history
2 Inscription
3 Idiomatic use
4 See also
5 Notes
6 References
7 External links

History of the Rosetta Stone

Modern-era discovery

In preparation for Napoleon‘s 1798 campaign in Egypt, the French brought with them 167 scientists, scholars and archaeologists known as the ‘savants’. French Army engineer Lieutenant Pierre-François Bouchard discovered the stone sometime in mid-July 1799, first official mention of the find being made after the 25th in the meeting of the savants’ Institut d’Égypte in Cairo. It was spotted in the foundations of an old wall, during renovations to Fort Julien near the Egyptian port city of Rashid (Rosetta) and sent down to the Institute headquarters in Cairo. After Napoleon returned to France shortly after the discovery, the savants remained behind with French troops which held off British and Ottoman attacks for a further 18 months. In March 1801, the British landed at Aboukir Bay and scholars carried the Stone from Cairo to Alexandria alongside the troops of Jacques-Francois Menou who marched north to meet the enemy; defeated in battle, Menou and the remnant of his army fled to fortified Alexandria where they were surrounded and immediately placed under siege, the stone now inside the city. Overwhelmed by invading Ottoman troops later reinforced by the British, the remaining French in Cairo capitulated on June 22, and Menou admitted defeat in Alexandria on August 30.[3]

After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt. Menou refused to hand them over, claiming they belonged to the Institute. British General John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, refused to relieve the city until de Menou gave in. Newly arrived scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton agreed to check the collections in Alexandria and found many artifacts that the French had not revealed.[citation needed]

When Hutchinson claimed all materials were property of the British Crown, a French scholar, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, said to Clarke and Hamilton that they would rather burn all their discoveries — referring ominously to the destruction of the Library of Alexandria — than turn them over. Clarke and Hamilton pleaded their case and Hutchinson finally agreed that items such as biology specimens would be the scholars’ private property. But Menou regarded the stone as his private property and hid it.[4]

How exactly the Stone came to British hands is disputed. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who escorted the stone to Britain, claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun carriage. In his much more detailed account however, Clarke stated that a French ‘officer and member of the Institute’ had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back-streets of Alexandria, revealing the stone among Menou’s baggage, hidden under protective carpets. According to Clarke this savant feared for the stone’s safety should any French soldiers see it. Hutchinson was informed at once, and the stone taken away, possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage. French scholars departed later with only imprints and plaster casts of the stone.[5]

Turner brought the stone to Britain aboard the captured French frigate HMS Egyptienne landing in February 1802. On March 11, it was presented to the Society of Antiquaries of London and Stephen Weston played a major role in the early translation. Later it was taken to the British Museum, where it remains to this day. Inscriptions painted in white on the artifact state "Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801" on the left side and "Presented by King George III" on the right.

Translation

Experts inspecting the Rosetta Stone during the International Congress of Orientalists of 1874

In 1814, Briton Thomas Young finished translating the enchorial (demotic) text, and began work on the hieroglyphic script but he did not succeed in translating them. From 1822 to 1824 the French scholar, philologist, and orientalist Jean-François Champollion greatly expanded on this work and is credited as the principal translator of the Rosetta Stone. Champollion could read both Greek and Coptic, and figured out what the seven Demotic signs in Coptic were. By looking at how these signs were used in Coptic, he worked out what they meant. Then he traced the Demotic signs back to hieroglyphic signs. By working out what some hieroglyphs stood for, he transliterated the text from the Demotic (or older Coptic) and Greek to the hieroglyphs by first translating Greek names which were originally in Greek, then working towards ancient names that had never been written in any other language. Champollion then created an alphabet to decipher the remaining text.[6]

In 1858, the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania published the first complete English translation of the Rosetta Stone as accomplished by three of its undergraduate members: Charles R Hale, S Huntington Jones, and Henry Morton.[7]

Recent history

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since 1802. Toward the end of World War I, in 1917, the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London and moved the Rosetta Stone to safety along with other portable objects of value. The Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

The Stone left the British Museum again in October 1972 to be displayed for one month at the Louvre Museum on the 150th anniversary of the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing with the famous Lettre à M. Dacier of Jean-François Champollion.

In July 2003, Egypt requested the return of the Rosetta Stone. Dr. Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo, told the press: "If the British want to be remembered, if they want to restore their reputation, they should volunteer to return the Rosetta Stone because it is the icon of our Egyptian identity". In 2005, Hawass was negotiating for a three-month loan, with the eventual goal of a permanent return.[8][9] In November 2005, the British Museum sent him a replica of the stone.[10] In December 2009 Hawass said that he would drop his claim for the return of the Rosetta Stone if the British Museum loaned the stone to Egypt for three months.[11]
Inscription

In essence, the Rosetta Stone is a tax amnesty given to the temple priests of the day, restoring the tax privileges they had traditionally enjoyed from more ancient times. Some scholars speculate that several copies of the Rosetta Stone must exist, as yet undiscovered, since this proclamation must have been made at many temples. The complete Greek portion, translated into English,[12] is about 1600–1700 words in length, and is about 20 paragraphs long (average of 80 words per paragraph):

n the reign of the new king who was Lord of the diadems, great in glory, the stabilizer of Egypt, but also pious in matters relating to the gods, superior to his adversaries, rectifier of the life of men, Lord of the thirty-year periods like Hephaestus the Great, King like the Sun, the Great King of the Upper and Lower Lands, offspring of the Parent-loving gods, whom Hephaestus has approved, to whom the Sun has given victory, living image of Zeus, Son of the Sun, Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah;

In the ninth year, when Aëtus, son of Aëtus, was priest of Alexander and of the Savior gods and the Brother gods and the Benefactor gods and the Parent-loving gods and the god Manifest and Gracious; Pyrrha, the daughter of Philinius, being athlophorus for Bernice Euergetis; Areia, the daughter of Diogenes, being canephorus for Arsinoë Philadelphus; Irene, the daughter of Ptolemy, being priestess of Arsinoë Philopator: on the fourth of the month Xanicus, or according to the Egyptians the eighteenth of Mecheir.

THE DECREE: The high priests and prophets, and those who enter the inner shrine in order to robe the gods, and those who wear the hawk’s wing, and the sacred scribes, and all the other priests who have assembled at Memphis before the king, from the various temples throughout the country, for the feast of his receiving the kingdom, even that of Ptolemy the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, which he received from his Father, being assembled in the temple in Memphis this day, declared: Since King Ptolemy, the ever-living, beloved by Ptah, the god Manifest and Gracious, the son of King Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoë, the Parent-loving gods, has done many benefactions to the temples and to those who dwell in them, and also to all those subject to his rule, being from the beginning a god born of a god and a goddess—like Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris, who came to the help of his Father Osiris; being benevolently disposed toward the gods, has concentrated to the temples revenues both of silver and of grain, and has generously undergone many expenses in order to lead Egypt to prosperity and to establish the temples… the gods have rewarded him with health, victory, power, and all other good things, his sovereignty to continue to him and his children forever.[13]

Idiomatic use

The term Rosetta Stone came to be used by philologists to describe any bilingual text with whose help a hitherto unknown language and/or script could be deciphered. For example, the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks (Obverse in Greek, reverse in Pali, using the Kharo??hi script), which enabled James Prinsep (1799–1840) to decipher the latter.

Later on, the term gained a wider frequency, also outside the field of linguistics, and has become idiomatic as something that is a critical key to the process of decryption or translation of a difficult encoding of information:

"The Rosetta Stone of immunology"[14] and "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of flowering time (fossils)".[15] An algorithm for predicting protein structure from sequence is named Rosetta@home. In molecular biology, a series of "Rosetta" bacterial cell lines have been developed that contain a number of tRNA genes that are rare in E. coli but common in other organisms, enabling the efficient translation of DNA from those organisms in E. coli.

"Rosetta" is an online language translation tool to help localisation of software, developed and maintained by Canonical as part of the Launchpad project.

"Rosetta" is the name of a "lightweight dynamic translator" distributed for Mac OS X by Apple. Rosetta enables applications compiled for PowerPC processor to run on Apple systems using x86 processor.

Rosetta Stone is a brand of language learning software published by Rosetta Stone Ltd., headquartered in Arlington, VA, USA.

The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 12,000 AD. Its goal is a meaningful survey and near permanent archive of 1,500 languages.

Rosetta Stone was also a pseudonym used by Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss) for the book "Because a Little Bug Went Ka-Choo"

See also

Rosetta (disambiguation)
Behistun Inscription
Decree of Canopus, stele no. 1 of the 3-stele series

Notes

• Allen, Don Cameron. "The Predecessors of Champollion", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 144, No. 5. (1960), pp. 527–547
• Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy. The Keys of Egypt: The Obsession to Decipher Egyptian Hieroglyphs. HarperCollins, 2000 ISBN 0-06-019439-1
Budge, E. A. Wallis (1989). The Rosetta Stone. Dover Publications. ISBN 0486261638. http://books.google.com/books?id=RO_m47hLsbAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=rosetta+stone&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U1_VaJ_NxkLmbZuYyDLji99DXwY6w
• Downs, Jonathan. Discovery at Rosetta. Skyhorse Publishing, 2008 ISBN 978-1-60239-271-7
• Downs, Jonathan. "Romancing the Stone", History Today, Vol. 56, Issue 5. (May, 2006), pp. 48–54.
• Parkinson, Richard. Cracking Codes: the Rosetta Stone, and Decipherment. University of California Press, 1999 ISBN 0-520-22306-3
• Parkinson, Richard. The Rosetta Stone. Objects in Focus; British Museum Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-7141-5021-5
Ray, John. The Rosetta Stone and the Rebirth of Ancient Egypt. Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-674-02493-9
Reviewed by Jonathon Keats in the Washington Post, July 22, 2007.
• Solé, Robert; Valbelle, Dominique. The Rosetta Stone: The Story of the Decoding of Hieroglyphics. Basic Books, 2002 ISBN 1-56858-226-9
The Gentleman’s Magazine: and Historical Chronicle, 1802: Volume 72: part 1: March: p. 270: Wednesday, March 31.

References

^ "The Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
^ "History uncovered in conserving the Rosetta Stone". http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/h/history_uncovered_in_conservin.aspx. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Downs, Jonathan, Discovery at Rosetta, 2008
^ Retrieved on 2008-25-6
^ See University of Pennsylvania, Philomathean Society, Report of the committee [C.R. Hale, S.H. Jones, and Henry Morton], appointed by the society to translate the inscript on the Rosetta stone, Circa 1858 and most likely published in Philadelphia. See later editions of circa 1859 and 1881 by same author, as well as Randolph Greenfield Adams, A Translation of the Rosetta Stone (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1925.) The Philomathean Society holds relevant archival material as well as an original casting.
^ Charlotte Edwardes and Catherine Milner (2003-07-20). "Egypt demands return of the Rosetta Stone". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/1436606/Egypt-demands-return-of-the-Rosetta-Stone.html. Retrieved 2006-10-05. 
^ Henry Huttinger (2005-07-28). "Stolen Treasures: Zahi Hawass wants the Rosetta Stone back—among other things". Cairo Magazine. http://www.cairomagazine.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=1238&format=html. Retrieved 2006-10-06. [dead link]
^ "The rose of the Nile". Al-Ahram Weekly. 2005-11-30. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/770/he1.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-06. 
^ [1] "Rosetta Stone row ‘would be solved by loan to Egypt’" BBC News 8 December 2009
^ "Translation of the Greek section of the Rosetta Stone". Reshafim.org.il. http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/rosettastone.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
^ "Text of the Rosetta Stone". http://pw1.netcom.com/~qkstart/rosetta.html. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
^ The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2000-09-06). "International Team Accelerates Investigation of Immune-Related Genes". http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2000/ihwg.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
^ Gordon G. Simpson, Caroline Dean (2002-04-12). "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of Flowering Time?". http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/5566/285?ijkey=zlwRiv/qSEivQ&keytype=ref&siteid=sci. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosetta Stone
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Text on the Rosetta Stone in English
Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Greek Text from the Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone in The British Museum
More detailed British Museum page on the stone with Curator’s comments and bibliography
The translated text in English – The British Museum
The Finding of the Rosetta Stone
The 1998 conservation and restoration of The Rosetta Stone at The British Museum
Champollion’s alphabet – The British Museum
people.howstuffworks.com/rosetta-stone.htm

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosetta_Stone"

Categories: 196 BC | 2nd century BC | 2nd-century BC steles | 2nd-century BC works | 1st-millennium BC steles | Ancient Egyptian objects in the British Museum | Ancient Egyptian texts | Ancient Egyptian stelas | Antiquities acquired by Napoleon | Egyptology | Metaphors referring to objects | Multilingual texts | Ptolemaic dynasty | Stones | Nile River Delta | Ptolemaic Greek inscriptions | Archaeological corpora documents

]]]

 

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IMG_8779 Gaspar Pieter Verbruggen le Jeune. 1664-1730. Anvers. Vase de fleurs et de fresh fruits. Vase of blossoms and fresh fruits. Strasbourg. Palais des Rohan .
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Gaspar Pieter Verbruggen le Jeune. 1664-1730. Anvers. Vase de fleurs et de fruits. Vase of flowers and fresh fruits. Strasbourg. Palais des Rohan .

RENAISSANCE ET REFORME

La peinture est toujours le reflet des idéologies qui gouvernent une société.
Los angeles "Renaissance" n’a jamais été une renaissance strategy, économique ou politique de l’Europe. Cette renaissance s’est déroulée au 11è siècle, pas au 15è ou 16è. Il n’y a pas eu non plus de renaissance de l’art européen au 15è ou au 16è siècle. Car l’architecture de Brunelleschi ou d’Alberti n’est pas supérieure, techniquement, à l’architecture gothique. Et la peinture de Raphael n’est pas plus belle que celle de Giotto ou de Van Eyck. Elle est seulement plus réaliste. Et cette évolution vers plus de réalisme est modern, et commence dès le début du 14è siècle.
Par contre à la fin du 15è siècle et au 16è siècle, en Italie, il s’est produit un changement idéologique important : le recul du catholicisme en tant qu’idéologie special, absolument dominante en European countries. Et l’apparition, au sein de l’élite européenne, pas dans le peuple, de toute nouvelle idéologie concurrente : l’Humanisme. L’humanisme est un courant culturel européen, renouant avec la civilisation gréco-romaine, trouvant ses origines en Italie, principalement autour de la Toscane, qui s’est développé aux 15è et 16è siècles.
Aux 15è et 16è siècles l’art européen ne came across pas en place soudainement de nouvelles strategies, plus perfectionnées, plus élaborées, plus savantes que celles précédentes (gothiques).
Par contre, c’est dans l’espace de quelques dizaines d’années, autour de 1450-1500 que l’Art européen s’inspire de nouveaux thèmes, empruntés à la mythologie, à la philosophie, à la morale et à l’histoire gréco-romaine. Nouveaux thèmes qui ne remplacent pas les anciens empruntés au christianisme, mais s’ajoutent à eux.
L’Art européen développe alors une culture et une esthétique inspirées de l’Antiquité qui entre en concurrence avec la religion catholique.

Une évolution semblable se déroule en Europe, à la fin du 16è siècle et au début du 17è siècle : la Réforme. Los angeles Réforme n’est d’ailleurs qu’une suite idéologique de la Renaissance, qui affecte un plus grand nombre de personnes en Europe. Les élites concernées ne sont plus seulement quelques princes, mais aussi des cercles grands bourgeois.
La Réforme comme la Renaissance est essentiellement un mouvement idéologique. Ce changement idéologique est inspiré par une toute petite élite, qui a ensuite imposé aux peuples qu’elle gouvernaient, ses croyances. C’est le principe bien connu : "Tel prince, telle religion". Que le prince soit, parfois, un groupe de bourgeois, comme à Genève ou aux Pays Bas, ne change rien à l’affaire.
En art le changement est considérable. Il se manifeste tout particulièrement aux Pays Bas du Nord: la quasi disparition des thèmes religieux en peinture. C’est la naissance de toute peinture matérialiste, dont les thèmes, presque uniques, sont : le paysage, les moeurs, la nature morte, le portrait.
Des peintres comme Aertsen et Beuckelaer vivent à une époque de transition : leurs tableaux contiennent encore des allusions à la faith, mais reléguées au fond du tableau.
Et bientôt, hormis quelques exclusions comme Rembrandt, la peinture du siècle d’Or néerlandais sera totalement profane. Les Vierges disparaissent et les Usuriers apparaissent.

RENAISSANCE AND REFORM

Painting is obviously a reflection associated with the ideologies that regulate a community.
The "Renaissance" hasn’t already been a renaissance technical, economic, or governmental of European countries. This revival took place in 11th century, perhaps not in the fifteenth or 16th. There’s been no revival of European art inside 15th or 16th century. As the design of Brunelleschi and Alberti isn’t exceptional, theoretically, in contrast to Gothic design. And artwork of Raphael is certainly not more breathtaking than the painting of Giotto, or "primitive" Jan van Eyck. It is just more realistic. And also this development towards even more realism is steady, and starts right from the start of 14th century.
By disadvantages, into the belated fifteenth century and also the sixteenth century, in Italy, a significant ideological move has occured: the drop of Catholicism since the sole ideology, definitely principal in European countries. And the appearance in European countries’s elite, not among the men and women, of an innovative new competing ideology: Humanism. Humanism is a European social action, reconnecting using Greco-Roman society, finding its beginnings in Italy, mainly around Tuscany, which created into the fifteenth and 16th centuries.
In fifteenth and 16th hundreds of years, European art cannot unexpectedly in place new practices. Heightened, much more sophisticated, much more knowledgeable than previous (Gothic).
By disadvantages, it really is inside room of a few years, around 1450-1500, your European Art attracts brand new themes, borrowed from mythology, philosophy, morality and also the Greco-Roman history. Brand new themes which do not replace the olds, lent from Christianity, and also for them.
The European Art then develops a tradition and an aesthetic impressed by antiquity, which competes with the Catholic religion.

The same development is occurring in Europe when you look at the belated sixteenth century and early 17th century: the Reformation. The Reform normally an ideological room of this Renaissance, which impacts more individuals in European countries. The concerned elites, aren’t only princes, but also sectors of upper middle-income group.
Reform, whilst the Renaissance, is basically an ideological action. This ideological move is prompted by a little elite, who after that imposed their philosophy on individuals. This is basically the well-known concept: "That prince, such a religion." The prince is sometimes a bourgeois celebration, as in Geneva or even the Netherlands.
In art the change is considerable. He is specifically obvious when you look at the Netherlands North: the digital disappearance of spiritual themes in artwork. This is actually the delivery of a materialistic artwork, whoever themes, nearly unique, are: The landscape, the manners (mores), the still-life, portrait.
Painters like Aertsen and Beuckelaer inhabit an occasion of change: their tables however contain references to religion, but relegated to your bottom of table.
And very quickly, with a few exclusions like Rembrandt, the painting associated with Dutch Golden Century is supposed to be completely secular. The Virgin vanished, and Loan sharks (usurers) appear (Reymerswaele)

 

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CLender Jay Loan provider’s Birthday celebration
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< img alt="lenders"src="https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/9538755154_4a2363eaed.jpg"size="400"/ > Picture by

CLender Predative Lender
lenders
< img alt="lenders"src ="https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/5990054975_a39360b2b6.jpg"width ="400"/ > Photo by Philippe Vieux-Jeanton

 

Fireworks

A couple of great credit scores ranking photos I discovered:

Fireworks
credit rating
< img alt=" credit scores ranking" src=" https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/35567532252_2e99e1b769.jpg" size=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href= " http://www.flickr.com/photos/53130103@N05/35567532252" > pennstatenews The yearly 4thFest fireworks display has actually been ranked amongst the top five largest in The U.S.A.. The all-volunteer pyrotechnics group creates a vibrant as well as inspiring show, choreographed to songs, that launches more than 10,000 shells right into the night skies over Penn State’s Beaver Stadium.

NASA Uncovers a New Setting of Ice Loss in Greenland
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< img alt=" credit report ranking" src=" https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/34557917360_0db2b0a554.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Picture by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center

A < a href=" http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL073478/full" rel= "nofollow" > brand-new NASA research study discovers that throughout Greenland’s hottest summertimes on record, 2010 as well as 2012, the ice in Rink Glacier on the island’s west shore didn’t just thaw faster compared to normal, it glided through the glacier’s inside in an enormous wave, like a warmed freezer pop gliding out of its plastic covering. The wave continued for four months, with ice from upstream proceeding to relocate down to replace the missing out on mass for at the very least four even more months.

This lengthy pulse of mass loss, called a singular wave, is a brand-new discovery that could enhance the possibility for sustained ice loss in Greenland as the climate continues to warm, with ramifications for the future price of water level rise.

Image credit report: NASA/OIB

Review even more NASA Media Use Guidelines Ambrym, South Pacific Ocean Image by
europeanspaceagency Sentinel-2A takes us to the Vanuatu archipelago in the South Pacific Sea, about 1700 km eastern of Australia.

The islands we see are Pentecost to the north and also Ambrym to the south.

Looking closely at the coastline, the white of breaking waves is more obvious on the eastern coastlines of the islands compared to on the west coasts. This is a typical monitoring on islands that depend on the zone of the profession winds blowing mostly from south-easterly instructions in the southern hemisphere.

Focusing on the dark area on Ambrym, red-hot lava lakes can be translucented the clouds. This volcano has 2 active volcanic cones and we can see smoke wandering out over the sea to the west.

The last time the Ambrym volcano erupted was in 1913, motivating the evacuation of nearby communities.

Ambrym’s 12 km-wide caldera was created around 50 ADVERTISEMENT by a big Plinian eruption– likewise called a ‘Vesuvian’ eruption due to the similarity with the surge of Italy’s Mount Vesuvius that damaged the communities of Pompeii as well as Herculaneum. These sorts of eruptions are marked by columns of gas as well as ash that extend high right into the stratosphere. They additionally eject big amounts of pumice.

The volcano’s inclines show up black due to the visibility of lava. As we relocate further far from the volcano the land ends up being greener owing to the increased vegetation cover.

Sentinel-2 is able to methodically map different courses of cover such as woodland, plants, grassland, water surfaces as well as fabricated cover like roads as well as buildings. This info can be utilized to manage natural resources, to examine prices of deforestation, reforestation and also areas affected by wildfires. It could likewise assist governing bodies and also business ventures make informed decisions about exactly how ideal to handle, safeguard and sustain our vital woodland resources.

This image, also showcased on the Earth from Area video clip program, was recorded by the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite on 24 June 2016.

Credit history: has changed Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO

 
 
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