Tag Archives: images

Cool Equifax images

Published / by webmaster

Check-out these equifax photos:

Anthem Breach Notification
equifax
Image by Tony Webster

Innovative Immigration and Border Control Reform
equifax
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies
Agenda
1:00-1:30PM: Subscription
1:30-2:30PM: Keynote Discussion
The Honorable Jayson Ahern, former Acting Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border coverage and main, The Chertoff Group
Michael Petrucelli, previous Acting Director, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services and Executive Chairman and President, ClearPath, Inc.
The Honorable Julie Myers Wood, previous Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security for Immigration and Customs Enforcement and President-Compliance, Federal Practice and software programs, Guidepost Solutions, LLC
Moderated by: Susan Ginsburg, Associate, DHS Quadrennial Review Advisory Committee and Nonresident Fellow, Migration Plan Institute
2:30-2:45PM: Break
2:45-3:45PM: Driving Technological Reform
Robert Mocny, Director, United States Visitor and Immigration Reputation Indicator Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security
The Honorable C. Stewart Verdery Jr., former Assistant Secretary for Border and Transportation safety plan and preparing, U.S. division of Homeland Security, and Founder and Partner, Monument Policy Group, LLC
Ryan Fox, Principal, Equifax
Moderated by: Norma Krayem, Senior Policy Advisor, Patton Boggs LLP and Senior Associate, CSIS Homeland safety and Counterterrorism Program
3:45-3:50PM: Break
3:50-4:50PM: Places and programs for technology
Pamela Dingle, Senior Specialized Architect, Ping Identity
Tamar Jacoby, President & CEO, Immigration Functions
Sonia Padilla, Executive Director, Office of Technology and Acquisitions, U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Moderated by: Patrick R. Schambach, vice-president and General management, Homeland protection and Foreign Affairs, CSC
This event ended up being permitted by the nice help of CSC and Ping Identity in addition to extra assistance from Equifax.
csis.org/event/innovative-immigration-and-border-control-…

Revolutionary Immigration and Border Control Reform
equifax
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & Overseas Studies
Agenda
1:00-1:30PM: Registration
1:30-2:30PM: Keynote Conversation
The Honorable Jayson Ahern, previous performing Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border cover and main, The Chertoff Group
Michael Petrucelli, previous Acting Director, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration providers and Executive Chairman and President, ClearPath, Inc.
The Honorable Julie Myers Wood, previous Assistant Secretary of Homeland protection for Immigration and Customs Enforcement and President-Compliance, Federal practise and Software Solutions, Guidepost Solutions, LLC
Moderated by: Susan Ginsburg, Associate, DHS Quadrennial Evaluation Advisory Committee and Nonresident Fellow, Migration Policy Institute
2:30-2:45PM: Break
2:45-3:45PM: Driving Technical Reform
Robert Mocny, Director, United States Of America Visitor and Immigration Status Indicator Technology, U.S. Division of Homeland Protection
The Honorable C. Stewart Verdery Jr., former Assistant Secretary for Border and Transportation protection plan and preparing, U.S. division of Homeland Security, and creator and lover, Monument Policy Group, LLC
Ryan Fox, Main, Equifax
Moderated by: Norma Krayem, Senior plan Advisor, Patton Boggs LLP and Senior connect, CSIS Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Program
3:45-3:50PM: Break
3:50-4:50PM: Areas and programs for technology
Pamela Dingle, Senior Specialized Architect, Ping Identification
Tamar Jacoby, President & CEO, Immigration Functions
Sonia Padilla, Executive Director, Office of Technology and Acquisitions, U.S. Customs and Border cover
Moderated by: Patrick R. Schambach, Vice President and General management, Homeland safety and international Affairs, CSC
This event had been permitted by the nice assistance of CSC and Ping Identity plus extra help from Equifax.
csis.org/event/innovative-immigration-and-border-control-…

Cool Car Loans images

Published / by webmaster

Check out these car loans images:

loan car
car loans
Image by ndrwfgg
My 320d is at last getting its new headlight today. This is the loan car – a new Mini Cooper. Pin-sharp handling, engine a considerable improvement over the old model, seats grippy and comfy, rest of interior a bit kitsch. Enormous fun – but I shall be happy to have my own car back.

2720 HF64BPX WILTS & DORSET
car loans
Image by eastleighbusman
seen 28/01/15 on Above Bar Southampton, on loan still to Bluestar

Cool Bad Credit images

Published / by webmaster

Some cool bad credit images:

Bad Credit
bad credit
Image by cafecredit
Photo by CafeCredit under CC 2.0

You can use this photo for FREE under Creative Commons license. Make sure to give proper author attribution to www.cafecredit.com.

Thank you for respecting Creative Commons license.

P.S. Need more photos like this? Check out my flickr profile page.

Bad credit refers to credit which is negative on your credit report which results in more risk for a lender to give you money. You may be turned down more often for loans and find it much harder to get credit as the credit you have already is negative.

Bad Credit Card
bad credit
Image by cafecredit
Photo by CafeCredit under CC 2.0

You can use this photo for FREE under Creative Commons license. Make sure to give proper author attribution to www.cafecredit.com.

Thank you for respecting Creative Commons license.

P.S. Need more photos like this? Check out my flickr profile page.

A credit bureau is a company that collects information that relates to the credit ratings of an individual. It takes this information and makes it available to lenders, credit card companies, and other financing institutions. This helps financial institutions decide whetheror not an individual can repay loans or is even a candidate for a loan.

Bad Credit
bad credit
Image by Got Credit

Cool Home Equity images

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A few nice home equity images I found:

Marina Bay
home equity
Image by Shaojin+AT
Picture: Helix Bridge & Marina Bay Sands
Location: Marina Bay, Singapore

Marina Bay Sands is an integrated resort fronting Marina Bay in Singapore. Developed by Las Vegas Sands, it is billed as the world’s most expensive standalone casino property at S billion (US.7 billion), including cost of the prime land.[1][2]
With the casino complete, the resort features a 2,560-room hotel, a 120,000 sq.m. convention-exhibition center, The Shoppes mall, an Art & Science museum, two Sands Theatres, six "celebrity chef" restaurants, two floating pavilions, a casino with 500 tables and 1,600 slot machines. The complex is topped by a 340m-long SkyPark with a capacity of 3,900 people and a 150m infinity swimming pool, set on top of the world’s largest public cantilevered platform, which overhangs the north tower by 67m.[3][4] The 20-hectare resort was designed by Moshe Safdie Architects. The local architect of record was Aedas Singapore, and engineering was provided by Arup and Parsons Brinkerhoff (MEP).
Originally set to open in 2009, Las Vegas Sands faced delays caused by escalating costs of material and labour shortages from the onset. The severe global financial crisis also pressured the company to delay its projects elsewhere to complete the integrated resort.[5] Although Marina Bay Sands has been compared on scale and development costs to MGM’s CityCenter, the latter is a mixed-use development, with condominium properties – comprising three of the seven main structures, being sold off.[6][7]
The resort was officially opened with a two-day celebration on 23 June 2010 at 3.18 pm, after a partial opening earlier in April. It was, however, not finished at the time of the April opening, which was marked by numerous service failures.[8] The museum, theatres and floating pavilions are still being built and are expected to be fully completed by December 2010.

Background

Part of the parcel of land for Marina Bay Sands in the foreground prior to development. The parcel overlooks Singapore’s financial district in the background.
Marina Bay Sands is one of two winning proposals for Singapore’s first Integrated Resorts, the other being the Resorts World Sentosa, which incorporates a family-friendly Universal Studios Theme Park. The two large-scale resorts were conceived to meet Singapore’s economic and tourism objectives for the next decade and they will have 30-year casino licenses, exclusive for the first ten years.
Bidders were assessed based on four criteria:
tourism appeal and contribution
architectural concept and design
development investment
strength of the consortium and partners
On 27 May 2006, Las Vegas Sands (LVS) was declared winner of the Marina Bay site in the prime new business district of Marina South with its business-oriented resort. LVS highlighted its forte in Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing and Exhibitions (MICE), of which its founder, Sheldon Adelson, is a pioneer in Las Vegas and the key to his early business success.[9] In the Design Evaluation portion of the tender, a panel of local and international architects commended Sands’ design as superior to other bids in terms of pedestrian circulation and layout, and it also fit in with the Marina Bay landscape best. They liked that the hotel towers was set back from the waterfront to open up expansive views of the city and the entire Marina Bay, making the skyline for Singapore’s downtown more attractive and distinctive.[10]
Singapore Tourism Board highlighted Sands’ line-up of six celebrity chefs, such as Australia’s Tetsuya Wakuda and Thomas Keller (Napa Valley, California, USA) and Charlie Trotter (Chicago, USA).
LVS submitted its winning bid on its own. Its original partner City Developments Limited (CDL), with a proposed 15 per cent equity stake, pulled out of the partnership in the second phase of the tender process. CDL’s CEO, Kwek Leng Beng said his company’s pullout was a combination of factors – such as difficulties in getting numerous companies he owns to comply in time, as well as reluctance of some parties to disclose certain private information in probity checks required by the Singapore government.[11] However, Kwek was retained as an advisor for Sands’ bid.
[edit]Investment

Inside the Marina Bay Sands Hotel
Las Vegas Sands initially committed to invest S.85 billion (about US.85 billion) in the project, not including the fixed S.2 billion (about US8 million) cost of the 6,000,000 square feet (560,000 m2) site itself.[12] With the escalating costs of materials, such as sand and steel, and labour shortages owing to other major infrastructure and property development in the country, Sheldon Adelson place the total cost of the development at S.0 billion (about US.9 billion) as of July 2009.[1][13]
Las Vegas Sands declared the undertaking as "one of the world’s most challenging construction projects and certainly the most expensive stand-alone integrated resort property ever built".[14] It expects the casino to generate at least billion in annual profit.[6] Two months after the initial phased opening, the casino attracts around 25,000 visitors daily, about a third being Singaporeans and permanent residents who pay a 0 daily entry levy or ,000 for annual unlimited access.[15] Half a million gamblers passed through the casino in June 2010.[16]
For the economy, Marina Bay Sands is projected to stimulate an addition of .7 billion or 0.8 per cent to Singapore’s Gross Domestic Product by 2015, employing 10,000 people directly and 20,000 jobs being created in other industries.[11]
The resort is designed by Moshe Safdie, who says it was initially inspired by card decks. In addition to the casino, other key components of the plan are three hotel towers with 2,500 rooms and suites, a 200,000-square-foot (19,000 m2) Art-Science museum and a convention centre with 1,200,000 square feet (111,000 m2) of space, capable of accommodating up to 45,000 people. The resort’s architecture and major design changes along the way were also approved by a number of consultant feng shui masters.[citation needed]
[edit]Opening

During the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics opening ceremony
Marina Bay Sands was originally planned to be completed in a single phase in 2009,[13] but rising construction costs and the financial crisis forced the company to open it in phases. The first phase’s preview opening was further delayed until 27 April 2010, and the grand opening was pushed back to 23 June 2010. The rest of the complex remain under construction and will not be completed before 2011.
On 27 April 2010, Marina Bay Sands had the first of a planned 3 to 4 phase openings. The casino, parts of the conference hall, a segment of the Shoppes, 963 hotel rooms and the event plaza were opened at the auspicious time of 3:18 p.m as part of the "preview opening".[17]
The Inter-Pacific Bar Association (IPBA) held the first conference at Marina Bay Sands Convention Centre on 2–5 May 2010, but the event was marred by uncompleted facilities and a power failure during a speech. IPBA withheld payment of S0,000 and was consequently sued by Marina Bay Sands.[18] In June IPBA counter-sued, describing the venue as a "complete disaster" and that its earlier payments had been imposed by "duress, fear and force".[18] An "amitable settlement" with undisclosed terms was announced in August.[19]
On 23 June 2010, the resort had its official opening with a "2-day celebration"; this includes the Sands SkyPark, the Event Plaza along Marina Bay, more shops, additional dining options and nightlife offerings, and the rest of the hotel rooms. First day events included – a "World Championship Climb" on the glass facade of the building to the SkyPark, with 7 teams of 21 top rock climbers from around the world competing, and an evening concert for 4,000 invited guests and customers, featuring Diana Ross, Kelly Rowland, JJ Lin among others. The SkyPark was opened on the second day at 2 pm,[14] with about 2,000 adult tickets costing S each sold.[20]
[edit]Timeline forecast
In December 2010, the Art-Science Museum, two Sands Theatres and two floating Crystal Pavilions will be completed.
In March 2011, Disney’s The Lion King musical production will debut at the Marina Bay Sands Theatre.[21]
[edit]Attractions

View of the CBD skyline, City Hall, and Esplanade from the SkyPark

View of Singapore Flyer from the SkyPark
Marina Bay Sands features three 55-storey hotel towers which were topped out in July 2009. The three towers are connected by a 1 hectare sky terrace on the roof, named Sands SkyPark.
In front of the three towers include a Theatre Block, a Convention and Exhibition Facilities Block, as well as the Casino Block, which have up to 1000 gaming tables and 1400 slot machines. The Art-Science Museum is constructed next to the three blocks and has the shape of a lotus. Its roof will be retractable, providing a waterfall through the roof of collected rainwater when closed in the day and with laser shows when opened at night. The Art-Science Museum opens in December 2010.
The SkyPark is home to the world’s longest elevated swimming pool, [22] with a 478-foot (146-meter) vanishing edge, perched 191 meters above the ground. The pools are made up of 422,000 pounds of stainless steel and can hold 376,500 gallons (1424 cubic metres) of water. The SkyPark also boasts rooftop restaurants, nightclubs, gardens hundreds of trees and plants and a public observatory with 360-degree views of the Singapore skyline.
There are four movement joints beneath the main pools, designed to help them withstand the natural motion of the towers, and each joint has a unique range of motion. The total range of motion is 19.68 inches (500 millimetres). In addition to wind, the hotel towers are also subject to settlement in the earth over time, so engineers built and installed custom jack legs to allow for future adjustment at more than 500 points beneath the pool system. This jacking system is important primarily to ensure the infinity edge of the pool continues to function properly.[23]
Moshe Safdie designed an Art Path within the resort, incorporating seven installations by five artists including Sol Lewitt, Antony Gormley and Zheng Chongbin. The pieces are meant to play on environmental influences including light, water and wind, integrating art with architecture.[24]

Source from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marina_Bay_Sands

Home Equity
home equity
Image by aag_photos
Home Equity – Home on top of stack of Money

When using this image please provide photo credit (link) to: www.aag.com per these terms: www.aag.com/retirement-reverse-mortgage-pictures

Mortgage
home equity
Image by 401(K) 2013
Home equity mortgage

I am the designer for 401kcalculator.org. I have put all these images in the public domain and welcome anyone to use them however please credit our site as the source if you do:http://401kcalculator.org

Cool Platinum Card images

Published / by webmaster

A few nice platinum card images I found:

Solitaire
platinum card
Image by LauraLA2008
She’s got a downtown attitude and a platinum card lifestyle.

Platinum Card
platinum card
Image by mharvey75
I swear, I have no idea why this was sent to me.

www.unlikelywords.com/card-carrying-member/

Platinum Card (rear)
platinum card
Image by mharvey75
Really? If I lose this card, they’ll replace it?

(Not a Republican, I swear!)

Cool Dispute Credit Report images

Published / by webmaster

A few nice dispute credit report images I found:

The Memory Of Eye On Malaysia (2007-2010)
dispute credit report
Image by tamahaji
Eye on Malaysia was a transportable Ferris wheel installation in Malaysia. It began operating in Kuala Lumpur in 2007, was then moved to Malacca in 2008, and operated there until 2010.
Most sources credit Eye of Malaysia with an overall height of 60 metres (197 ft), however conflicting reports in the Malaysian newspaper The Star quote heights of both 60 m [1] and 62 m (203 ft).[2]

Eye on Malaysia first operated at Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, Kuala Lumpur, where it enabled visitors to experience a 360-degree panoramic view of the city centre and over 20 kilometres of its surroundings, including the Kuala Lumpur Tower, the Istana Budaya and the Petronas Twin Towers, during a 12-minute ride. It was unveiled in conjunction with Visit Malaysia Year 2007 on January 6, 2007 by the prime minister at that time, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi.

Eye on Malaysia was relocated to Kota Laksamana, next to the Malacca River in Malacca, in late 2008. It ceased operating in January 2010 pending the outcome of a legal dispute between its owners, Fitraco NV, a Belgian leisure equipment leasing company, and the Malaysian operators of the wheel. It was dismantled in October 2010 (Wiki)

Note: Old Photograph (Found from my old desktop)

Rome visit, June 2008 – 57
dispute credit report
Image by Ed Yourdon
These pictures were taken during a trip to Rome in Jun 2008, where I presented a 2-day seminar on "Web 2.0".

I noticed this couple, sitting on the railing that separates the vehicular roadway from the pedestrian part of the Piazza del Popolo. I couldn’t tell if they were arguing, engaged in a who-blinks-first? contest, or just having a thoughtful conversation…

I can’t help wondering if this couple had any idea how many people would look at their picture (a little over 14,000 as of January 2012), and how many different bizarre blog postings — well over a hundred, at this point, from all over the world — would use the image of their conversation to illustrate their message. To see all the places where the photo has been published (at least, all of the ones that I’m aware of), see below…

***********************************************

Note: this photo was published on Jul 8, 2008 in a blog posting entitled "Reader Question: Handling Pressure to Apologize." It was also published in an Aug 21, 2008 blog article entitled "Marriage, money, debt, and divorce?" And it was published in a Jan 27, 2009 blog article entitled "Complaining’s Place In Marriage." In addition, it was published in a Jan 13, 2009 blog titled "Karen Kalisek’s Top 20 Things To Help (1-5)." More recently, it was published in a March 17, 2009 "Mind Hack" blog article titled "Dominant chemicals." And it was published in a Sep 13, 2009 blog titled "How to Fight With Your Partner."

A few days later, it was published in a Sep 18, 2009 blog titled "Couple’s Counseling: Why I Don’t Take Sides." And it was published in an Oct 20, 2009 Greek blog titled "Η ψυχολογική κακοποίηση των ανδρών." It was also published in a Nov 4, 2009 blog titled "10 tips for traveling as a couple – and not breaking up." And it was published in a Nov 14, 2009 blog titled "How Thoughtful Words Save Marriages." It was also published in an undated (late-November 2009) blog titled "Democratia cuplului." It was also published, on page 5 of 8, in a Nov 14, 2009 blog titled "Best of the Week: Forbidden Gifts, Landlord Secrets & More."

One of the more unusual publications of this photo was in a Dec 7, 2009 blog titled "Separated Spouses Filing Bankruptcy Together." It was also published in a Nov 30, 2009 blog titled "The Language Barrier."

Moving into 2010, the photo was published in a Jan 7, 2010 blog titled "Everyone has a bad day." It was also published in a Jan 7, 2010 blog titled "Dealing with travel-partner conflicts." And it was published in an undated (Jan 2010) blog titled "Avoiding the Heartbreak Hostel: 10 Simple Rules For Backpacking Lovin’ for Female Travellers." It was also published in a Jan 18, 2010 Greek blog titled "Τι συμβαίνει στην αγάπη μετά το γάμοl." And it was published in a Jan 20, 2010 blog titled "CityFiles: Letting them down easy (he said/she said)."

It was also published in a Jan 22, 2010 blog titled "Infidelity Doesn’t Have to Mean Divorce," and a Jan 24, 2010 blog titled "Both partners need to be involved." It was also published in a Feb 5, 2010 Dutch blog titled "‘Wij’ gelukkiger dan ‘ik’." And it was published in an undated (Feb 2010) blog titled "Adult Separation Anxiety." And it was published in a Jan 30, 2010 Wikihow blog page with the same title as the caption that I used for this Flickr page. I’ve also discovered that it was published in a Feb 12, 2010 Canadian blog titled "We need to talk (about the history of marriage counselling)." And it was published in an undated (Mar 2010) blog titled "Communication Skill Lesson Plan." It was also published in a Mar 25, 2010 blog titled "Marital Gridlock And Growing Up." It was also published in a Mar 28, 2010 blog titled "In today’s culture, sex is public but love is private." And it was published in a Mar 30, 2010 blog titled "Professional honeymooners: dream job or nightmare?"

There’s more: the photo was published in an Apr 5, 2010 blog titled "John Mayer Was Right: You Gotta Say What You Need To Say." And it was published in an Apr 6, 2010 blog titled "Miscarraiges [sic] Strain Marriages." It was also published in an Apr 8, 2010 blog titled "Why We Stay With Unfaithful Partners." And it was published in an Apr 9, 2010 blog titled "Foursquare Becomes Great Predictor Of Divorce," as well as an Apr 10, 2010 blog titled Relationship Advice | Too Immature for Relationship It was also published in an Apr 13, 2010 Italian blog titled "Uomini col Mestruo, un gruppo su Facebook smaschera i senza palle." And it was published in a May 14, 2010 Peruvian(?) blog titled "Codependencia: Cuando la propia identidad se pierde en la pareja." It was also published in a Jun 11, 2010 blog titled "Is Divorce Contagious?" It was also published in a Jun 25, 2010 blog titled "The Magic Of Making Up – Authors Overview," and a Jun 26, 2010 blog titled "The struggle for control in a relationship." A similar blog, titled "The stages of relationships: Phase 3: The power struggle," was published on Jun 28, 2010; and on the same day, the photo was published in a Trés Sugar blog titled "Finding Out Why We Fight Might Help Us Patch Things Up." It was also published in a Jun 29, 2010 Mashable blog titled "Facebook Becoming a Prime Source for Divorce Case Evidence," and I’m pretty sure that the Spanish edition of the same blog appeared on Jun 30, 2010 with a title of "Servicio gratis de mediación para divorcios en Gipuzkoa."

Moving into the second half of 2010, the photo was published in a Jul 2, 2010 blog titled " I Want My Husband To Love Me Again – 4 Ways To Rekindle Your Romance." It was also published in a Jul 8, 2010 blog about insurance, titled "How Can I Convince You?" And it was published in an undated (Jul 2010) blog titled "Adult Separation Anxiety." It was also published in a Jul 12, 2010 blog titled "Temas tabúes en las relaciones de pareja." And it was published in a Jul 14, 2010 blog titled "Initiative to Ban Divorce in California Resurfaces." It was also published in a Jul 15, 2010 Dating 1001 blog, with the same title as the caption that I used on this Flickr page. It was also published in a Jul 25, 2010 blog titled "Businesses Capitalizing on High Unemployment." And it was published in a Jul 29, 2010 blog titled "How to Deal With Financial Infidelity," as well as a Jul 29, 2010 blog titled "Words of Wisdom: Ryan Holiday. It was also published in a Sep 6, 2010 blog titled "Living together apart – Conviviendo juntos pero separados." And it was published in a Sep 15, 2010 blog titled "Is Your Debt A Relationship Killer?" It was also published in a Sep 17, 2010 blog titled "We Got Into An Argument, Part I." And it was published in a Sep 18, 2010 blog titled "Saving It." It was also published in a Sep 25, 2010 blog titled "Help Save My Marriage – What To Do." And it was published in an undated (late Sep) "Dating Advice Expert" blog titled "Marital dispute: An overview of court proceedings." It was also published in a Sep 30, 2010 blog titled "It’s a Guy Thing." And it was published in an undated (Oct 2010) blog titled "Dealing with Infidelity is a Response by Couples in Trouble." It was also published in an Oct 15, 2010 Judy Cares blog titled "Is it a Marriage or a Relationship?", as well as an Oct 19, 2010 blog titled "Moving Forward in a Marriage: Forgiving the Minor Mistakes." And it was published in an Oct 26, 2010 blog titled "Relationships should be Easy and fun." It was also published in an Oct 29, 2010 blog titled "I suggested couples counseling and my fiance said “I don’t do counseling. What should I do?", and another Oct 29, 2010 blog titled "Cosas que no debes decir en una cita."

Moving into November, it was published in a Nov 2, 2010 blog titled "Justicia rechaza el 7% de las demandas de divorcio por no cumplir requisitos." It was also published in an undated (Nov 2010) blog titled "Relationship Break Up Advice – How to Save Your Broken Relationship." And it was published in a Nov 8, 2010 blog titled "Welcome to Improve Sex Life." It was also published in a Nov 15, 2010 blog titled "Question of the Week: How has chronic illness impacted your marriage?", and a Nov 16, 2010 blog titled "Lastest [sic] Debt Counseling News." And it was published in an undated (mid-Nov 2010) Lying Lovers blog titled "Recovering From Infidelity – Crucial Steps to Rebuilding Your Marriage." It was also published in an undated (late Nov 2010) blog titled "Long Distance Relationships: How to Know When it’s Time to Call it Quits," and it was published in an undated (late Nov 2010) blog titled "Reconciliation is Possible with the Help of a Couples Counseling NYC Therapist." It was also published in a Dec 3, 2010 blog titled "Will Your Marriage Succeed Or Fail?", as well as a Dec 3, 2010 blog titled "Sole Sisters’ Guide to Keeping Sane While Traveling in Twos." And it was published in a Dec 6, 2010 blog titled "1 de cada 5 divorcios usan a Facebook como prueba de infidelidad." It was also published in an undated (mid-Dec 2010) Hospital Medical Billing Fraud blog titled "Do Infertile People Make Better Parents?" And it was published in a Dec 13, 2010 Polish blog titled "Kobiety kłamią inaczej niż faceci. Kto częściej?." It was also published in a Dec 27, 2010 blog titled "The Easy Way to Make Money Online Everyday." And it was published in a Dec 30, 2010 blog titled "Relationship Cues: Sensing the Unspoken." Finally, it was published in a Dec 31, 2010 blog titled "Divorced and Co-Parenting: How to Get Along With Your Ex."

Moving into 2011, the photo was first published in a Jan 2, 2011 blog titled " Importance Of Medical Insurance Plans." It was also published in a Jan 3, 2011 blog titled "Car Insurance Tips for Mature Drivers in Florida, as well as a Jan 5, 2011 Forbes.com blog titled "5 Ways Your Partner Can Ruin Your Credit." It was also published in a Jan 6, 2011 "Learn to Earn Online blog, with the same title and descriptive notes as what I had originally written on this Flickr page. It was also published in a Jan 10, 2011 blog titled "Bankruptcy Rules Review." And it was published in an undated (mid-Jan 2011) "Counseling Rehab" blog titled "4 Ways to Treat Your Addiction." It was also published in a Jan 13, 2011 blog titled "Waiting for Debt Help and Free Debt Advice?" And it was published in a Jan 15, 2011 blog titled "Online Dating Tips: How To Create A Great Profile." It was also published in a Jan 16, 2011 blog titled "Farmville Cheats And Associated Dangers," and another Jan 16, 2011 blog titled "Searching For The Fastest Way to Make Money Online?" It was also published in a Jan 17, 2010 pinkblog.it blog titled "Coppia: non perdonare il partner fa bene al rapporto." And it was published in a Jan 18, 2011 blog titled "How to Keep a Conversation Going." It was also published in a Jan 20, 2011 blog titled "5 Tips for Taking a Successful Online Dating Profile Photo." And it was published in an undated (late Jan 2011) blog titled "Why Social And Traditional Media Marketers Should Stop Acting Like Fighting Lovers." It was also published in a Jan 26, 2011 blog titled "Facebook cheating, restaurant websites and living in caves with Dinner Party Download." And it was published in an undated (late Jan 2011) blog titled "Stop Arguing Your Relationships to Death." It was also published in a Jan 30, 2011 blog titled "Ask the Readers: Hiding Money from Your Spouse."

The photo was also published in an undated (early Feb 2011) blog titled "Debt Relief Consolidation – Tips To Find Free Debt Help Online," with the caption and detailed notes that I provided on this Flickr page, followed by some more serious comments about the details of debt relief consolidation. And it was published in a Feb 8, 2011 blog titled "Female partners of heavy gamblers – victims or enablers?", and a Feb 13, 2011 blog titled "5 Sizzling Online Dating Tips." It was also published in a Feb 15, 2011 blog titled "The 1st Key for Dealing with Marital Strife," and it was published in a Feb 24, 2011 blog titled "Do You Know Your Rights?" It was also published in a Mar 8, 2011 blog titled 4 Reasons Why Open Marriage Doesnt Work," and a Mar 11, 2011 blog titled "What Do Musicians Really Earn Online?" And it was published in a Mar 16,2011 Car Insurance Companies blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written on this Flickr page. It was also published in an undated (mid-Mar 2011) Website titled Especialistas en Divorcios. And it was published in a Mar 21, 2011 blog titled "Make love, not war: enjoy travel as a couple." It was also published in an undated (late Mar 2011) blog titled "Things You Must Know About Free Debt Consolidation Services." And it was published in a Mar 24, 2011 Nice How to Make Money Online Photos blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I used on this Flickr page. It was also published in a Mar 30, 2011 blog titled "Gründe für die Eifersucht." And it was published in an Apr 7, 2011 blog titled "The Italian Language Learning," as well as an Apr 8, 2011 blog titled "How to Make People Angry," and an Apr 10, 2011 blog titled "Gründe für die Eifersucht." It was also published in an Apr 20, 2011 blog titled "6 Common mistakes that can ruin your relationship." And it was published in an undated (late Apr 2011) blog titled "Cuáles son las señales de una relación abusiva o que no es sana?", as well as an undated (late Apr 2011) blog titled "What are the Signs of an Unhealthy or Abusive Relationship?" It was also published in an Apr 26, 2011 blog titled "How To Make Your Dates More Pleasant And Enjoyable." And it was published in a May 16, 2011 blog titled "Parents Relationship Affects Quality of Children’s Sleep." It was also published in a May 23, 2011 blog titled
"Want Your Baby to Sleep Through the Night? Try Harmony in Your Relationship." And it was published in a May 27, 2011 blog titled " ‘My Wife Won’t Have Sex with Me’ Is a Pathetic Excuse to Cheat," as well as an undated (late May 2011) blog titled "Why is it so hard to change relationships?"

It was also published in a Jun 1, 2011 blog titled "Should You Dispute a Performance Appraisal?" And it was published in a Jun 10, 2011 blog titled "Four signs you’re heading for divorce," as well as a Jun 10, 2011 blog titled "Becoming a Better Woman From the Inside Out." It was also published in a Jun 11, 2011 blog titled "Discuss How To Earn Money Online," as well as a Jun 11, 2011 blog titled "The Online Dating Game On Twitter – How Does it Work?" And it was published in a Jun 22, 2011 blog titled "Mistakes in Choosing a Marriage Partner," and a Jun 22, 2011 blog titled "Anatomy of A Marital Argument." It was also published in a Jun 30, 2011 blog titled "Talk Money for Relationship Success." And it was published in a Jul 22, 2011 blog titled "Provocative Phrase Friday — Her marriage was over + 11 Other Writing Prompts." It was also published in an undated (late Jul 2011) blog titled "Communication Skill Lesson Plan." And it was published in a Jul 31, 2011 blog titled "Rebuilding Your Marriage After An Affair." It was also published in an Aug 5,2011 Czech blog titled "Děláte dost pro Váš vztah?", as well as an Aug 5, 2011 blog titled Bankruptcy in San Antonio ? Why Me? And it was published in an Aug 6, 2011 blog titled "Wells Fargo And Wachovia Merger Is Bad News For Divorced Couple." It was also published in an Aug 15, 2011 blog titled "ACCORD report that the Internet is the fastest growing factor for marital difficulties in Ireland – but is that the full story?" And it was published in an Aug 19, 2011 blog titled "Why Senior Citizens Need To Get Reliable Travel Insurance." It was also published in an Aug 24, 2011 blog titled "Vrouwen winnen de meeste rubies." And it was published in an Aug 30, 2011 blog titled "BILL GROSS: Global Economy Is Like A Marriage "Teetering On The Edge Of Divorce"."

Moving on, the photo was published in a Sep 5, 2011 blog with the curious title of "Gnats’ farts and gender" at vickihollett-dot-com-slash-?p=3957". It was also published in a Sep 5, 2011 blog titled "Separated Chileans opt for unconventional living arrangements," as well as a Sep 5, 2011 blog titled "Děláte dost pro Váš vztah?." It was also published in an undated (early Sep 2011) blog titled "Adult Separation Anxiety." And it was published in a Sep 14, 2011 blog titled "It’s Not Just About Spanking." It was also published (though I have no idea why) in an Oct 6, 2011 blog titled "San Antonio Storage." It was also published in a Nov 11, 2011 blog titled "La ansiedad por la separación es un trastorno cada vez mas frecuente en nuestros hijos0." And it was published in a Nov 16, 2011 blog titled "Poll: Balancing two ambitious careers." It was also published in a Nov 21, 2011 blog titled "Von Vertrauen und Misstrauen." And it was published in a Nov 23, 2011 blog titled "When Is It Time To Move On From A Relationship," and a Nov 23, 2011 Faith Village blog titled "How to Fight Fairly." It was also published in a Nov 28, 2011 blog titled "5 Questions To Ask Yourself To See If You’ll Need A Pre-Nup." And it was published in a Dec 2, 2011 blog titled "Renting a Car in Ireland?", as well as a Dec 5, 2011 blog titled "Relationship Quotes," and another Dec 5, 2011 blog titled "Phrases to Avoid in Conversation – What Not to Say During a Fight with Your Beloved." It was also published in a Dec 6, 2011 blog titled "Single Parents – Dating and Family Strife."

Moving into 2012, the photo was published in a Jan 2, 2012 blog titled "? Why? ? Auto insurance cos? vile? expensive in the UK?", as well as a Jan 2, 2012 blog titled "I’m 33 years old with a second DUI. What’s the best way to go about a job search?", and a Jan 2,2012 blog titled "Ask LH: How Do I Get Out Of An Argument With An Irrational Person?" It was also published in a Jan 4,2012 blog titled "Procurment Homes Need not " Dress" Good?" And it was published in an undated (early Jan 2012) Death Note Wallpaper blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written on this Flickr page. It was also published in an undated (early Jan 2012) blog titled "Adult Separation Anxiety."

Also, the photo was published in an Apr 19, 2012 blog titled "What’s Your Deal-Breaker?" It was also published in an Apr 23, 2012 blog titled "When An Over-Spender Ruins Someone You Love." And it was published in an Apr 27, 2012 blog titled "“Solo lei vuole un figlio”… quando il desiderio di genitorialità non è condiviso," as well as an Apr 27, 2012 blog titled "ANGLO-ITALIAN Experience Their First Travel “Discussion” – FOLLOW UP." It was also published in a May 2, 2012 blog titled "Morar junto antes de casar aumenta chances de divórcio, aponta estudo," as well as a May 2, 2012 blog titled Τι είναι και τι δεν είναι σταυρός στην οικογένεια." It was also published in a May 16, 2012 blog titled "Why You Shouldn’t Have Sex with Your Roommate," as well as a May 25, 2012 blog titled "What is a MA declaration of homestead?" It was also published in a May 9, 2012 blog titled " Annulment vs. Legal Separation: 3 Differences You Should Know About." And it was published in a Jun 10, 2012 blog titled "How To Improve Your Relationships ." It was also published in a Jun 13, 2012 blog titled "15 Relationship Truths for Tough Times." And it was published in a Jun 22, 2012 blog titled "Episode 116 Should Parents Fight in Front of their Kids?," as well as a Jun 23, 2012 Gigazine blog titled "アイデアはどこからやって来るのか?という20項目" (which means, I think, "where do ideas come from?") It was also published in a Jun 22, 2012 blog titled "Reconnecting Depressed Partners Despite Fear and Shame," and a Jun 23, 2012 blog titled "Commitment-Phobic Employers Do Their Best to Mimic Your Ex-Boyfriend."

Moving into 2013, the photo was published in an early Jan 2013 blog titled "Jesteś inny niż kiedyś." It was also published in a Jan 16, 2013 blog titled "Can a collection agency garnish your wages? in california?" It was also published in a Jan 28, 2013 blog titled "US-California: E ‘can temporarily change the withholding tax on wages for a period of 2 months?" And it was published in a Feb 14, 2013 blog titled "New Gender Studies minor has major plans for the future." It was also published in a Feb 20, 2013 blog titled "Time to Succumb." And it was published in a Mar 6, 2013 blog titled "Ten Steps to Healthy Fighting in a Relationship," as well as a Mar 8, 2013 blog titled "Para não brigar com as mulheres, maioria dos homens prefere mudar de opinião, diz pesquisa."

Cool Sell Home images

Published / by webmaster

Take a look at these sell house images:

State Drawing Area in Boston Manor Residence
sell home
< img alt=" offer home" src=" https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/7170341691_6bab067d8f.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Image by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/37413900@N04/7170341691" > Maxwell Hamilton

All the contents were offered in 1922, and also the furniture is on financing from Guunersbury Park Gallery.

SOLD
sell home
< img alt=" market residence" src=" https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/4687444157_3ecee04710.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Photo by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/50780433@N05/4687444157" >
Lori Bonnett SORRY, THIS PROPERTY IS FORMALLY MARKETED For various other current Warren & & Hunterdon Region Home Listings, go to < a href=" http://www.loribonnett.com/" rel=" nofollow" > www.loribonnett.com For More Details:
Lori Bonnett Weichert Realtors 9 W Key Clinton
, NJ 08809 908-310-2726 Fax: 908-735-8372 lbonnett@earthlink.net!.?.! SOLD
sell home
< img alt=" market residence" src=" https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/4688077600_c802864fc6.jpg" size=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/50780433@N05/4688077600" > Lori Bonnett SORRY, THIS RESIDENTIAL OR COMMERCIAL PROPERTY IS FORMALLY
MARKETED For other existing Warren & Hunterdon Region
Home Listings, go to< & a href=" http://www.loribonnett.com/" rel=" nofollow" > www.loribonnett.com FOR EVEN MORE INFO: Lori Bonnett Weichert

Realtors 9 W Key Clinton
, NJ 08809 908-310-2726 Fax: 908-735-8372

Cool Debt Management images

Published / by webmaster

Check out these debt management images:

« €YPΩ – ∏OΛI∑ » burning
debt management
Image by quapan
German Banks ‘Can Afford’ a Greek Debt Default @ greek crisis, Bloomberg, November 3, 2011
Hans Reckers, managing director of Germany’s association of public banks, talks about the Greece crisis and German banks’ capital requirements. He speaks from Berlin with Francine Lacqua on Bloomberg Television’s "On the Move."

+++ Ticker zur Euro-Schuldenkrise +++ @ 3rd November 2011
Berlin/Cannes/Athen (dpa) – Unser Ticker zur Euro-Schuldenkrise, zu den Entwicklungen in Griechenland und zum G20-Gipfel.

Greece Offers to Repay Bailout with Giant Horse
BRUSSELS (The Borowitz Report) – In what many are hailing as a breakthrough solution to Greece’s crippling debt crisis, Greece today offered to repay a bailout from the European Union nations by giving them a gigantic horse.
Finance ministers from sixteen EU nations awoke in Brussels this morning to find that a huge wooden horse had been wheeled into the city center overnight.
The horse, measuring several stories in height, drew mixed responses from the finance ministers, many of whom said they would have preferred a cash repayment of the EU’s bailout.
But German Chancellor Angela Merkel said she “welcomed the beautiful wooden horse,” adding, “What harm could it possibly do?”

‘Greek drama missing main player – the people’
The Greek Prime Minister will keep his job, at least for now, after securing a crucial confidence vote from Parliament. It comes after George Papandreou horrified the country’s European partners and wreaked international havoc on the markets by calling a referendum on the EU bailout plan for Greece, a move he later cancelled. RT correspondent Sara Firth is in the Greek capital with the latest.

Euro-Macher übernimmt Schuldenstaat @orf.at, 10.November 2011
Eigentlich hätte der Nachfolger des zurückgetretenen griechischen Premiers Giorgos Papandreou bereits am Mittwoch präsentiert werden sollen. Doch bis zum Schluss rangen Konservative und Sozialisten um einen geeigneten Kandidaten. Nun hat sich doch der lange als Favorit gehandelte Ex-Vizepräsident der EZB, Lucas Papademos, durchgesetzt.

Euro in Not
Dr. Hans-Peter Martin am 16.11.2011.
Der Euro wackelt – aktuelle Zahlen, die Bezüge herstellen.
Die Kreditratings
Ständig hört man die Drohungen dieser oder jener Ratingagentur, dass bald ein Euroland herabgestuft wird, und die Politiker zittern. An den Ratings orientieren sich die Finanzinstitute, wenn sie Staaten Kredite verleihen – wer ein niedriges Rating hat zahlt mehr. Hier eine Übersicht der Ratings der Eurozonenländer vom Oktober 2011. Eine gute Erklärung, was die einzelnen Ratings bedeuten, gibt es hier.

Biggest Creditors of Greece
COUNTRY CREDITOR DEBTS in €
GR National Bank of Greece 18,8 Billion
GR EFG Eurobank 8,8 Billion
GR Piraeus Bank 8,2 Billion
GR Atebank 7,9 Billion
GR Alpha Bank 5,5 Billion
GR Hellenic Postbank 5,3 Billion

FR BNP Paribas 5,0 Billion
CY Marfin Popular Bank 3,4 Billion
DE Commerzbank 3,0 Billion
FR Société Générale 2,7 Billion
CY Bank of Cyprus 2,4 Billion
DE Deutsche Bank 1,5 Billion
GB Royal Bank of Scotland 1,2 Billion
IT-AT Uni-Credit 800 Million

Wo der griechische Staat Milliarden €-Schulden hat
(.laut "Zeit Online" vom 16. Februar 2015 12:36 Uhr.)
Gesamtsumme: ∑ = 315,5 Milliarden €
…Kredite über EFSF: 141,8 Mrd. €
…bilaterale Kredite: 52,9 Mrd. €
…Staatsanleihen (Private): 40,5 Mrd. €
…Staatsanleihen (EZB): 27,0 Mrd. €
…offene Kredite des IWF: 25,0 Mrd.€
…T-Bills (Staatsanleihen mit kurzer Laufzeit): 15,0 Mrd. €
…andere Schulden: 13,3 Mrd. €

Greece has 60 billion euros in unpaid taxes: EU report (17th November 2011)
BRUSSELS (Reuters) – Greece has 60 billion euros ( billion) in unpaid taxes because of tax avoidance and lack of compliance, a report by the European Commission’s task force on Greece said on Thursday.
The figure is equivalent to around 25 percent of Greek gross domestic product. Greece’s total public debt stands at 370 billion euros, or around 160 percent of GDP.
Of the 60 billion euros of unpaid taxes, half is in uncollected taxes that are already subject to court cases, some of which have been running for more than 10 years, the report said. Only about 8 billion euros is quickly recoverable.
"Even though the actual prospects for collection are very low, the very size of these tax arrears casts a doubt over the efficacy of the overall tax administration," the report said.
"A number of areas for rapid progress have been identified including debt collection, large taxpayers, dispute resolution, and tax audit," the report said.
"There are additional areas for development such as management and organization of the tax administration, risk and revenue analysis, taxpayer services," it said.
The Commission’s Task Force on Greece has the task of identifying and coordinating all technical assistance to Greece to help reforms in the country and boost its economic growth.
(Reporting By Jan Strupczewski; editing by Luke Baker)

Griechenlands Rettung hängt am seidenen Faden @ reuters, Fr, 10. Februar 2012
Berlin/Athen (Reuters) – Die Rettung Griechenlands vor der Pleite steht nun überraschend doch wieder auf der Kippe.

Am Tag nach dem von der Regierung verkündeten Bekenntnis zu einem von EU und IWF geforderten Sparplan torpedierte die rechte Koalitionspartei Laos am Freitag den Beschluss. Ohne diesen wollen die ausländischen Geldgeber die benötigten 130 Milliarden Euro aber nicht auf den Weg bringen. Zugleich attackierte Laos-Chef Giorgos Karatzaferis Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel, die "mit dicker Brieftasche Südeuropäern ihren Willen aufzwingen" wolle. Die Proteste gegen die harten Sparauflagen eskalierten in Athen. Die Gewerkschaften riefen unter der Losung "Leistet Widerstand!" einen zweitägigen Generalstreik aus. Auch die Troika aus EU, IWF und EZB geriet ins Fadenkreuz: Polizeigewerkschaften drohten gar mit Haftbefehlen gegen Vertreter der Dreiergruppe.
Die vier Laos-Minister boten den Rücktritt an. Damit bleibt eine zentrale Forderung der Troika nach parteiübergreifender Unterstützung für den Sparkurs unerfüllt. Karatzaferis warf Bundeskanzlerin Merkel Herrschsucht vor. Sie habe die Schaltzentrale Europas von Brüssel nach Berlin verlegt und stimme sich dabei eng mit ihren "Satellitenstaaten" Niederlande, Österreich, Finnland und "leider auch Luxemburg" ab.
KEINE AUSZAHLUNG OHNE UMSETZUNG
Der Ministerpräsident des Großherzogtums und Eurogruppenchef, Jean-Claude Juncker, hatte zuvor klargemacht, dass Griechenland vorerst noch kein grünes Licht für die Rettungshilfen erwarten kann. Die zuvor gemachte Zusage aus Athen, dass alle Parteien den Sparkurs mittrügen, reichte den Ministern nicht aus. Am Sonntag müsse das griechische Parlament das Sparprogramm beschließen, die Parteichefs müssten zudem ihre Zusage schriftlich vorlegen, und es fehlten noch konkrete Maßnahmen zur Einsparung von 325 Millionen Euro 2012. "Keine Auszahlung ohne Umsetzung", sagte Juncker.
Erfüllt Griechenland die Forderungen, kommen die Euro-Finanzminister am Mittwoch zusammen, um den Weg für das Hilfspaket freizumachen. Für die Auszahlung ist auch ein Beschluss des Deutschen Bundestages erforderlich, der für den 27. Februar angesetzt ist. Allerdings dürfte Karatzaferis die Erfüllung einer Forderung bereits zunichte gemacht haben: "Ich habe den anderen Parteiführern erklärt, dass ich diesem Kreditabkommen nicht zustimmen kann." Zudem forderte er, den Leiter der IWF-Mission in Griechenland, Poul Thomson, zur "persona non grata" zu erklären. Der Euro geriet durch die Äußerungen von Karatzaferis unter Druck und fiel unter die Marke von 1,32 Dollar. Auch der Dax gab nach.
In Athen ging die Polizei mit Tränengas gegen Demonstranten vor, die mit Brandsätzen, Flaschen und Steinen warfen. Die Polizeigewerkschaft drohte in einem Brief an die Troika aus EU, EZB und IWF, deren Finanzkontrolleure per Haftbefehl suchen zu lassen – unter anderem wegen Gefährdung der Demokratie. Die Streikenden legten zum zweiten Mal in dieser Woche Metro und Busse lahm, Schiffe blieben im Hafen. Krankenhausärzte und Bankangestellte legten die Arbeit nieder. Später sollten sich die Lehrer dem Ausstand anschließen. "Nein zu Entlassungen! Nein zu Gehaltskürzungen! Nein zu Rentenkürzungen!", skandierten Demonstranten auf dem Syntagma-Platz in Athen.
"HUNDERT MAL HIN UND HER ÜBERLEGT"
In Berlin betonte Regierungssprecher Steffen Seibert, eine Pleite Griechenlands liege nicht im deutschen Interesse. Die Athener Regierung müsse aber die neuen Sparauflagen erfüllen und auch Forderungen aus dem ersten Hilfspaket nachkommen. Bundeskanzlerin Merkel erörterte am Morgen mit den Fraktionschefs den Stand in der Krise. Im Anschluss berieten sie und Finanzminister Wolfgang Schäuble mit der Unionsfraktion.
Nach Angaben aus Fraktionskreisen warnte Merkel, eine Pleite Griechenlands hätte unabsehbare Folgen. Dann könnte das Haftungsrisiko nicht mehr beherrschbar sein. "Wir haben das hundert mal hin und her überlegt", wurde die Kanzlerin zitiert.
SONDERKONTO WEITER IM GESPRÄCH
Die Euro-Finanzminister wollen Griechenland in Zukunft strikter kontrollieren. EU-Währungskommissar Olli Rehn sagte, dazu könnte das von Merkel und Frankreichs Präsident Nicolas Sarkozy vorgeschlagene Sonderkonto eingerichtet werden. Auf dem Konto sollen die Hilfskredite zur Tilgung der Staatsschulden gesammelt werden, damit die Investoren ihr Geld zurückbekommen. Zur Entschuldung Griechenlands sollen die privaten Anleihegläubiger auf Forderungen im Volumen von 100 Milliarden Euro freiwillig verzichten. Rehn zufolge ist eine Vereinbarung für einen Anleihetausch in trockenen Tüchern. Doch solle alles in einem Gesamtpaket am Mittwoch verabschiedet werden.

Griechische Regierung drängt Parlamentarier zum Sparkurs Sa, 11. Februar 2012
Athen (Reuters) – Die griechische Regierung hat die Parlamentsabgeordneten am Samstag massiv unter Druck gesetzt, das am Vortag von ihr verabschiedete Sparprogramm zu billigen.
Der Chef der konservativen Neuen Demokratie drohte den Abgeordneten seiner Partei, sie bei einer Ablehnung von der Kandidatenliste für die im Frühjahr anstehende Parlamentswahl zu streichen. "Das ist ganz klar eine Frage der Parteidisziplin", sagte Antonis Samaras. Der stellvertretende Finanzminister Filippos Sachinidis warnte: "Die Konsequenzen eines ungeordneten Bankrotts wären unberechenbar für das Land. … Das würde uns auf einen unbekannten und gefährlichen Weg führen."
In einem Zeitungsinterview malte Sachinidis ein düsteres Bild: "Stellen wir uns doch die Frage, was es für das Land bedeutet, wenn es sein Bankensystem verliert, wenn es abgeschnitten wird vom Import von Rohstoffen, Arzneimitteln, Treibstoff, Grundnahrungsmitteln und Technologie."
REGIERUNG FASSTE DRASTISCHE SPARBESCHLÜSSE
Das Kabinett hatte am späten Freitagabend den strikten Sparauflagen der Europäischen Union (EU) und des Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) zugestimmt. Ministerpräsident Lukas Papademos drängte seine Regierung massiv zur Zustimmung. "Wir können es nicht zulassen, dass Griechenland bankrott geht", sagte er im Kabinett. "Vorrang hat für uns, alles zu tun, um das neue Wirtschaftsprogramm anzunehmen und mit der neuen Kreditvereinbarung fortzufahren." Abweichlern hatte Papademos mit einem Ausschluss aus der Regierung gedroht. Nach dem Beschluss zogen sechs Mitglieder des Kabinetts selbst die Konsequenzen und traten zurück.
Die umstrittenen Sparbeschlüsse umfassen unter anderem eine Kürzung der Zusatzrenten, die Kappung der Mindestlöhne um 22 Prozent und die Entlassung von rund 150.000 Beschäftigten im öffentlichen Dienst.
DAS PARLAMENT MUSS SONNTAG ENTSCHEIDEN
Am Sonntag muss nun das Parlament dem Sparplan zustimmen, der die Voraussetzung für dringend benötigte weitere Hilfen von 130 Milliarden Euro ist. Theoretisch verfügte die von den Konservativen und der sozialistische Pasok unterstützte Regierung über ausreichend Stimmen. Allerdings drohten einige Pasok-Abgeordnete, das Reformpaket abzulehnen. Die kleine rechtspopulistische Laos-Partei hat der Regierung bereits ihre Unterstützung aufgekündigt. Ihr Chef Giorgos Karatzaferis erklärte, er könne das Sparpaket nicht billigen.
Druck bekommen die Abgeordneten aber auch von ihren Wählern. Die Gewerkschaften laufen gegen das Sparpaket Sturm und haben unter dem Motto "Leistet Widerstand!" zu einem Generalstreik aufgerufen, der auch am Samstag andauerte. An der Akropolis über Athen enthüllten Demonstranten ein riesiges Transparent mit der Forderung: "Nieder mit der Diktatur der Monopole und der Europäischen Union". In Athen waren am Freitagabend die Proteste eskaliert: Die Polizei ging mit Tränengas gegen Demonstranten vor, die Brandsätze, Flaschen und Steine warfen.

Fires in central Athens as rioters clash with police ekathimerini.com , Sun Feb 12, 2012
The unrest came as lawmakers prepared to vote on a new debt deal agreed between Greece and its foreign creditors.
Historic cinemas, cafes and shops went up in flames in central Athens on Sunday as black-masked protesters fought Greek police outside parliament, while inside lawmakers looked set to defy the public rage by endorsing a new EU/IMF austerity deal.

"Enough is enough!» said 89-year-old Manolis Glezos, one of Greece’s most famous leftists. «They have no idea what an uprising by the Greek people means. And the Greek people, regardless of ideology, have risen."
Glezos is a national hero for sneaking up the Acropolis at night in 1941 and tearing down a Nazi flag from under the noses of the German occupiers, raising the morale of Athens residents.
"These measures of annihilation will not pass,» Glezos said on Syntagma Square, visibly overcome by teargas and holding a mask over his mouth.

Griechenland wählt: Einmal Hades (und zurück?) @ profil.at
Wieder wählt Hellas, das Chaos bleibt. Ein Untergangsszenario

Die Griechen nehmen einen neuen Anlauf, um sich für oder gegen den brutalen Sparkurs der Troika zu entscheiden. Gewinnt die linke Partei Syriza – und damit das Nein –, droht die EU offen mit dem Schlimmsten. Gewinnt die konservative Nea Dimokratia, könnte alles noch ein bisschen schlimmer werden.
Alle Schuld auf ihren Schultern
Eigentlich würden die Griechen am kommenden Sonntag gern in Ruhe ein neues Parlament wählen, wie das in ihrer Verfassung vorgesehen ist. Doch daraus wird nichts. Die ganze Welt hat beschlossen, mit der Stimmabgabe Schicksalsfragen von globaler Bedeutung zu verknüpfen. Die da wären: Soll Griechenland den Euro als Währung verlieren und für die nächsten Jahre in Armut versinken? Sollen Spanien, Italien und Portugal gleich hinterhertaumeln? Soll die gesamte Eurozone in eine Rezession schlittern? Soll die Weltwirtschaft insgesamt davon angesteckt werden? Sollen die Chancen einer Wiederwahl von US-Präsident Barack Obama damit zunichtegemacht werden?
Von Anna Giulia Fink, Georg Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Gunther Müller (Athen) und Robert Treichler
All das und mutmaßlich noch viel mehr soll das 11-Millionen-Völkchen der Griechen am kommenden Sonntag zu verantworten haben. In der Literatur bezeichnet man eine solche offensichtliche Übertreibung mit dem griechischen Begriff „Hyperbel“. Dummerweise weiß niemand so recht, wie weit es sich bei der grotesken Aufladung einer simplen Wahl um ein politisches Stilmittel handelt und wie weit um reale Befürchtungen. Das ist wohl der beste Beweis dafür, dass nicht die Griechen allein an dem Desaster in Fortsetzungen Schuld tragen, sondern dass ganz offensichtlich ein Systemfehler vorliegt, der so aussieht: Wem es am dreckigsten geht, dem wird die Verantwortung für alle anderen übertragen.
Das griechische Wahlvolk muss zu den Urnen, weil die Parlamentswahlen am 6. Mai dieses Jahres keine tragfähige Mehrheit erbrachten. De facto wird das Land seit Anfang 2010 nicht mehr von Athen aus regiert, es steht unter Kuratel der Troika, zusammengesetzt aus Europäischer Union, Europäischer Zentralbank und Internationalem Währungsfonds. Das relevante Kriterium bei dieser Wahl ist die Haltung der Parteien zu dem Sparprogramm, das die Troika mit der Regierung unter dem Sozialisten Giorgos Papan-dreou und danach mit der des Technokraten Lucas Papademos ausgehandelt hat. Soll das „Memorandum“, wie das mit harten Auflagen verknüpfte Rettungspaket in Griechenland genannt wird, befolgt oder aufgekündigt werden?
Aus Sicht eines großen Teils der Bevölkerung sind die Sparmaßnahmen drakonisch und wenig zielführend. Die EU hingegen will an den Vereinbarungen festhalten und droht Griechenland im Falle von Widerstand mehr oder weniger offen mit dem Exit aus der Eurozone – verknüpft mit dem Vorwurf, damit mutwillig alle Übel der weltweiten Finanz-, Banken- und Konjunkturkrise eskaliert haben zu lassen.
Kanadas Premier Stephen Harper war der Einzige, der vergangene Woche die Absurdität dieser Schuldzuweisung kritisierte: „Wir können nicht eine griechische Wahl zu einer Entscheidung über die Zukunft der Weltwirtschaft erklären, das ist niemandem gegenüber fair.“
Unrecht tut man damit zum Beispiel einem Mann, der auf einer Parkbank am Athener Omonia-Platz sitzt. Er heißt Christos Simos, ist 35 und kann sehr lange von geplatzten Träumen erzählen. Als Teenager wollte er Volleyballprofi werden, doch um seine Eltern zu beruhigen, studierte er Politikwissenschaft, schloss mit dem Doktorat ab und hatte 2008 bereits mehrere Job-angebote in der Tasche, während er noch den Militärdienst leistete: politischer Analyst in einem Think Tank, Coach bei einer Volleyballmannschaft.
Dann kam die Krise und raffte die guten Aussichten dahin. Christos nimmt einen Schluck aus seiner Dose Lipton-Eistee. Ihn plagen keine existenziellen Nöte, aber er wohnt immer noch bei seinen Eltern. „Ich verhungere nicht, aber die Tatsache, dass ich in meinem Alter nicht auf eigenen Beinen stehen kann, ist extrem entwürdigend“, sagt er wütend. Er hat keine Perspektive, und das ist schwer zu ertragen, auch wenn viele seiner Landsleute noch viel schlimmer dran sind. Am Sonntag wird Christos seine Stimme abgeben, und er will sie sich nicht nehmen lassen. „Ich weiß nicht, warum ich bei meiner Wahlentscheidung auf Länder wie Spanien oder Italien Rücksicht nehmen soll, wie uns jetzt suggeriert wird. Es muss doch in Ordnung sein, zunächst einmal an uns zu denken“, sagt er.
Das Orakel von Brüssel
Wie stark die europäische Kultur von der griechischen Antike beeinflusst ist, kann man daran ermessen, dass sich die Brüsseler Elite heute noch gern einer orakelhaften Sprache bedient, wenn sie besonders deutlich werden möchte. Kommissionspräsident José Manuel Barroso eröffnete seinen griechischen Wahlkampf mit folgenden Worten: „Es liegt jetzt an dem Volk der Griechen, sich in voller Sachkenntnis zwischen den Alternativen zu entscheiden und dabei zu bedenken, dass dies tatsächlich eine historische Wahl für die Zukunft ihres Landes ist.“ Wollen die Griechen in der Eurozone bleiben, so müsse „letztlich die Entschlossenheit aus Griechenland selbst kommen“, so Barroso. In der Interpretation für Sterbliche bedeutet das: Wählt Parteien, die für die Einhaltung der Bedingungen des Rettungsschirms garantieren, oder ihr könnt über den Styx ins Totenreich rudern.

Ähnlich subtil äußern sich EU-Ratspräsident Herman Van Rompuy und Euro-Gruppenchef Jean-Claude Juncker: „Wir wollen, dass Griechenland in der Eurozone bleibt“, sagt Rompuy. Die griechische Regierung müsse aber die Verpflichtungen erfüllen, die es im Gegenzug für die finanzielle Unterstützung durch Europa eingegangen sei. Auch Juncker will Griechenland weiterhin als Währungsmitglied behalten, bestätigte aber gleichzeitig, dass Experten der 17 Eurostaaten das mögliche Ausscheiden durchspielen.

Griechen, die ökonomisch noch irgendetwas zu verlieren haben, dürften Wirkung zeigen und eine der vertragstreuen Parteien – Nea Dimokratia oder Pasok – wählen. So viel zum Prinzip der Nichteinmischung der EU in nationale Wahlen.

„Give Greece a chance“
„Erpressung“ nennt das der Mann, der in all den verklausulierten Warnungen und Drohungen gemeint ist: Alexis Tsipras, dessen linkes Parteienbündnis Syriza in wenigen Jahren von 4,6 Prozent (2009) auf 16,8 Prozent (Mai 2012) gewachsen ist und in jüngsten Umfragen bei 23,6 Prozent und damit Kopf an Kopf mit der konservativen Nea Dimokratia lag. Der 37 Jahre alte einstige Kommunist ist in den Augen seiner Gegner in der EU ein gefährlicher Populist, der das Volk sirenengleich dazu verführen will, vom rechten Sparkurs abzukommen.

Sonntag vergangener Woche diskutiert der verteufelte Shootingstar entspannt mit dem marxistischen Philosophen Slavoj Zizek im Innenhof des Benaki, des Museums moderner Kunst in Athen. Tsipras trägt ein dunkelblaues Seidenhemd, Jeans, elegante Lederschuhe, das Gesicht ist glatt rasiert, der Kurzhaarschnitt sitzt perfekt. Das Gespräch kreist um die Krise in Hellas und den Erfolg der Linken in diesem Land. Da ist von einer „historischen Wende“ die Rede, vom Sieg der „Hoffnung über die Angst“, von einem Kampf gegen „das neoliberale Brüssel, den Imperialismus und Kapitalismus“, von einer Revolution, die hier begonnen habe und schon bald „ganz Europa erfassen wird“.

Zizek – er trägt ein schwarzes T-Shirt mit der Aufschrift „Occupy Europe“ – ist voll des Lobes für den 37-jährigen Tsipras. Er sieht in ihm einen Politiker, der das Zeug hat, „dieses Land wieder aufzurichten“ und obendrein einen „Kurswechsel in ganz Europa“ einzuleiten. Am Ende paraphrasiert der slowenische Linksradikale einen John-Lennon-Klassiker: „Give Greece a chance.“

Als sich der Innenhof des Benaki-Museums allmählich leert, beschließt eine kleine Gruppe von Syriza-Anhängern, in ein nahe gelegenes Lokal weiterzuziehen. Darunter ist ein alter Freund von Tsipras. Er gibt sich als Jannis aus, seinen wahren Namen will er lieber nicht nennen. Jannis kannte Tsipras schon in den 1990er-Jahren, als sie gemeinsam Schulen besetzten, um gegen die Privatisierung des Bildungssystems zu protestieren. Die beiden politisierten Teenager gingen zusammen auf Partys, sprachen über das Leben, Frauen und die Zukunft Griechenlands. Nur in einer Hinsicht habe sich Tsipras verändert, meint sein Freund Jannis: „Er ist kompromissloser als früher. Von seinem Programm würde er nicht abrücken wollen. Deshalb bin ich mir gar nicht so sicher, ob er am 17. Juni die Wahlen wirklich gewinnen möchte.“

Der linke Gottseibeiuns lässt sich mangelnden Siegeswillen zumindest nicht anmerken. Er tourte Ende Mai durch Europa, um für sein Programm zu werben: Sein Land solle in der Eurozone bleiben, aber, anstatt sklavisch zu sparen, „um Solidarität der Völker in Deutschland und Frankreich“ bitten. In Berlin willigte der SPD-Vorsitzende Sigmar Gabriel zwar ein, Tsipras zu empfangen, anstelle der erhofften Solidarität spendierte er jedoch nur den kostengünstigen Rat, dass „getroffene Vereinbarungen einzuhalten“ seien.
In Paris wiederum zeigte die Sozialistische Partei Tsipras die kalte Schulter, lediglich die Linksradikalen nahmen sich für den aufmüpfigen Griechen Zeit.
Im Innenhof des Benaki-Museums wertet man das internationale Mauerblümchen-Dasein als Trumpf für den Syriza-Spitzenkandidaten: „Die Tatsache, dass Merkel und die anderen neoliberalen Idioten Tsipras verachten, macht ihn nur noch stärker“, schwärmt die 63-jährige Annetta Karayanni.

Die gesteinigte Auxesia
Austerität war gestern. Frankreichs neuer Staatspräsident François Hollande versprach im Wahlkampf ein Ende des obsessiven Sparens und ein Ankurbeln des Wachstums mittels staatlicher Initiativen, zu Hause und in der EU. Nicht einmal einen Monat nach Amtsantritt hat der Sozialist bereits Wohltaten im Ausmaß mehrerer Milliarden Euro konkretisiert, darunter die Fortsetzung der französischen Version der „Hacklerregelung“ sowie eine Anhebung des Mindestlohns – und das, obwohl die Budgetaussichten nicht den Zielen des Fiskalpakts entsprechen.

In den Ohren der Griechen klingt das wie die Verheißungen eines lange ersehnten Retters – gleichsam die Ankunft der Auxesia, der Göttin des Wachstums. Endlich ein Politiker, der einsieht, dass blindwütiges Sparen kaputt macht. Allerdings gibt es auch in der Abkehr von der strikten Austeritätspolitik eine Ausnahme: Griechenland. Der französische Finanzminister Pierre Moscovici machte klar, dass sich die Frage eines Austritts Griechenlands aus der Eurozone „ohne Zweifel“ stelle, falls eine neue Regierung die Vereinbarungen infrage stellte. Auch Auxesia wurde in der antiken Sage aufgrund einer Verkettung unglücklicher Umstände zu Tode gesteinigt.

In Griechenland bricht alles zusammen, aber niemand stößt sich daran. Die Arbeitslosigkeit stieg im März auf 21,9 Prozent, die Wirtschaft schrumpft das fünfte Jahr in Folge. Die Tourismusbranche, an der ein Fünftel aller Jobs im Land hängt, erwartet einen Einbruch der Einnahmen um bis zu 15 Prozent im Vergleich zum Vorjahr. Worüber vor einem Jahr noch Witze gemacht wurden, tritt jetzt ein: 75 Inseln stehen in Griechenland zum Verkauf.

Das öffentliche Gesundheitswesen ist zusammengebrochen. Die größte gesetzliche Krankenkasse Griechenlands ist hoffnungslos verschuldet, Medikamente und Behandlungen gibt es nur noch gegen Bargeld.

Was machen Arbeitslose, wenn sie unter Diabetes, Asthma oder anderen chronischen Krankheiten leiden, aber nicht versichert sind? Sie fahren zu Jorgos Vichas, etwa 20 Minuten Autofahrt in südlicher Richtung der Hauptstadt. In Elliniko, wo sich bis zum Jahr 2001 der Athener Flughafen befand, steht ein graues unscheinbares Gebäude mit der Aufschrift „Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Elliniko“. Drinnen sind zwei Damen am Empfang, in der Vorratskammer für Medikamente steht der hauptberufliche Kardiologe Vichas. „Wir brauchen wieder Insulin“, ruft er nach draußen.
Im Jänner dieses Jahres hat Vichas diese medizinische Zentrale gegründet, um Bürgern zu helfen, die aus dem Gesundheitssystem gefallen sind. „Die Zahl der Arbeitslosen und derer, die sich keine Privatversicherung mehr leisten können, ist rapide angestiegen, ich konnte einfach nicht mehr zusehen“, sagt Vichas. Gemeinsam mit etwa 30 anderen Ärzten bietet er medizinische Unterstützung für Obdachlose an, das Gebäude habe die Stadt zur Verfügung gestellt. Woher er die Medikamente hat? „Apotheker, große Unternehmen, reiche Griechen kaufen sie und spenden sie.“ Besonders die Präparate für Diabetiker und Krebspatienten seien enorm teuer und für viele kaum leistbar.
Es kämen längst nicht mehr nur Immigranten und Obdachlose in das sozialmedizinische Zentrum, sondern auch Leute aus Mittelstandsfamilien, die ihre Jobs und ihre Wohnungen verloren haben. „Immer öfter haben wir es mit völlig unterernährten Kindern zu tun, es herrschen zum Teil afrikanische Zustände hier.“
Am Donnerstag, den 24. Mai, sprangen in Athen Antonis Perris, ein 60 Jahre alter, beschäftigungsloser Musiker, und seine 90 Jahre alte Mutter, die an Alzheimer litt, vom Dach ihres Wohnblocks in den Tod. Am Tag zuvor hatte Perris in einem Blog geschrieben, dass seine Mutter beginne, unter Anfällen von Schizophrenie zu leiden und dass kein Pflegeheim sie aufnehmen wolle. Die beiden lebten von 340 Euro im Monat, der Pension der alten Frau.
Atlas und der Undank
Plötzlich überschattet eine andere, vielleicht noch schwerer wiegende Pleite das griechische Fiasko: Spanien. Vergangenen Donnerstag senkte die Ratingagentur Fitch die Kreditwürdigkeit des südeuropäischen Landes von A auf BBB. Ursache ist der marode Bankensektor, der neben der hohen Arbeitslosigkeit Spaniens Bonität bedroht. Ende der vergangenen Woche hieß es, die Regierung von Premier Mariano Rajoy könnte bereits am Wochenende einen Hilfeantrag an den europäischen Rettungsschirm stellen.
Doch neben vielen anderen Unterschieden zur griechischen Situation ist vor allem einer bedeutend: Spanien gilt als „too big to fail“. Deshalb wurden bereits Überlegungen laut, Spanien ohne Reformauflagen Hilfsmittel zukommen zu lassen. Hingegen sei ein „Grexit“ für die Eurozone „schmerzlich, aber letztlich verkraftbar“, so Deutschlands Finanzminister Wolfgang Schäuble.
Spanien wird man eher entgegenkommen, Griechenland dagegen nicht. Das ist der Dank dafür, dass der griechische Titan Atlas am westlichsten Punkt der damaligen Welt – vis-à-vis von Spaniens Küste – das Himmelsgewölbe stemmte.
Die Götter sind uneins
Eine große schnelle Lösung müsste her, ein Sprung vorwärts in der europäischen Integration. Die beiden Hauptakteure, Berlin und Paris, wissen, dass angesichts der Dramatik diesmal geklotzt und nicht gekleckert werden muss. Doch an diesem Punkt endet die gemeinsame Vorstellung darüber, wie der große Wurf aussehen soll.
Frankreichs neuer Präsident setzt auf Wachstum und gemeinsame Staatsanleihen, die es den notleidenden EU-Ländern erlauben könnten, der Schuldenfalle zu entkommen. Die französische Forcierung einer gemeinsamen EU-Finanzpolitik leidet freilich unter dem Widerspruch, dass Paris nicht bereit ist, Souveränität an Europa abzugeben. Die Forderung nach einer verstärkten politischen Integration Europas hält Hubert Védrine, ehemaliger Außenminister Frankreichs und Parteifreund des neuen sozialistischen Staatspräsidenten François Hollande, im Gespräch mit profil für einen Ausfluss „bundesstaatlicher Utopie, die von den Völkern abgelehnt wird“. An der Seine will man intergouvernementales Handeln und nicht gemeinsame europäische Institutionen.
Mit der französischen Forderung, man möge von der Sparpolitik zu einem Wachstumskurs übergehen, könnte sich die deutsche Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel vielleicht noch anfreunden. Aber für sie ist klar: Eurobonds zur Finanzierung der Staatsschulden dürfen ohne stärkere politische Einigung und Demokratisierung Europas nicht kommen. Warum sollten die Deutschen für Schulden anderer Staaten haften, wenn sie nicht über deren Haushalte und deren Wirtschaftspolitik im Rahmen europäischer Gremien mitbestimmen können?
Und US-Präsident Barack Obama, der im Fall eines Absturzes der Weltwirtschaft um seine Wiederwahl bangen muss, drängt die Europäer dazu, endlich gemeinsam und gezielt den Krisengefahren zu begegnen. Aber auch in seinem Fall bleibt die Liebe zur großen Lösung eine platonische: „Wer glaubt, dass Obama einen Marshallplan für Europa auf den Weg bringt, täuscht sich. Diese Zeiten sind vorbei“, sagt der Risikoexperte Ian Bremmer im profil-Interview (siehe Seite 75).
Für Griechenland wird ohnehin jeder große Wurf – falls es überhaupt einen geben wird – zu spät kommen.
Am Ende die Peripetie
Bleibt als einziger von Europa genehmigter Ausweg die Wahl der Nea Dimokratia an die Regierung. Aber wo ist die Partei eigentlich? Zehn Tage vor den Parlamentswahlen sucht man in Athen vergeblich nach Veranstaltungen mit ihrem Spitzenkandidaten Antonis Samaras. Der Eventkalender auf der Website www.nd.gr ist leer. „Wir planen noch unsere nächsten Schritte und geben Bescheid“, antwortet Chrisostomos Pikazik, ein Pressesprecher von Parteichef Samaras, am Montag, am Dienstag und auch am Mittwoch vergangener Woche auf Anfrage von profil. Gibt es vielleicht kleinere Wahlkampfveranstaltungen ohne den Parteichef Samaras? „Im Moment nichts, nein.“
Nikos Lisidakis, mit seinen 27 Jahren eine der Zukunftshoffnungen der Nea Dimokratia, sitzt in einem Kaffeehaus vor der Zentrale der Parteijugend und blickt unentwegt auf sein Handy. Gerade eben erst hat er mit Parteichef Antonis Samaras telefoniert und ein paar Wahlstrategien besprochen. Er weiß, warum Diskretion anstatt Rummel angesagt ist. Es ist nicht leicht für einen Politiker einer der beiden Traditionsparteien Nea Dimokratia und Pasok, in der Öffentlichkeit aufzutreten. Viele Leute da draußen hassen uns abgrundtief.“
So könnte der Bestfall in Griechenlands unmittelbarer Zukunft aussehen: eine verhasste Regierung, gestützt von der verabscheuten Troika und den verachteten Deutschen – der dreiköpfige Kerberos, der Höllenhund der Antike.
Am 17. Juni, dem Wahltag, führen alle Wege in den Hades – und nur einer wieder heraus: Wenige Tage später könnte Griechenland bei der Fußball-Europameisterschaft im Viertelfinale spielen. Möglicher Gegner: Deutschland.

"Merkel ist die größte Bedrohung für die Welt" Von Günther Lachmann und Katharina Schäder | WELT ONLINE – Do., 21. Jun 2012
Das britische Magazin "NewStatesman" zeigt die Kanzlerin als Terminator und beschreibt sie als gefährlichsten Staatslenker Europas. Tenor: Die Kanzlerin schaut tatenlos zu, wie Athen brennt.
In den vergangenen Jahren ist Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel von ausländischen Medien immer wieder verunglimpft worden. Zuletzt zeigten sie griechische Medien in Nazi-Uniform.
Auch in Polen gab es vor Jahren unschöne Bildmontagen. Nun bildet das Labour-nahe britische Magazin "NewStatesman" sie auf dem Titel des aktuellen Heftes als Terminator ab. "Angela Merkels Austeritäts-Manie zerstört Europa" schreibt das Blatt.
Der Chef der Politikredaktion, Mehdi Hasan, hat offenbar kein Problem mit eher unpassenden Vergleichen. In der aktuellen Titelgeschichte etwa vergleicht er die Diktatoren Mahmud Ahmadinedschad und Kim Kong-un nicht nur mit Angela Merkel, sondern allen Ernstes auch mit Israels demokratisch gewähltem Staatschef Benjamin Netanjahu.
So fragt Hasan gleich zu Beginn: "Welcher politische Führer weltweit ist derzeit die größte Bedrohung für die globale Ordnung und den Wohlstand?" Der iranische Präsident Mahmud Ahmadinedschad? Falsch. Israels Ministerpräsident Benjamin Netanjahu? Nee. Nordkoreas Kim Jong-un? Wieder falsch", so Hasan, um dann selbst zu antworten: "Die Antwort ist eine sanftmütige Opernliebhaberin und frühere Chemikerin, die seit sieben Jahren im Amt ist."
Es sei die deutsche Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel, deren Lösung der europäischen Finanzkrise, "oder das Fehlen derselben hat den Kontinent und möglicherweise die ganze Welt an den Rand einer zweiten großen Depression gebracht".
Man könne wohl sagen, dass Merkel inzwischen die gefährlichste deutsche Regierungschefin seit Adolf Hitler ist, setzt der Autor seiner Anschuldigung die Krone auf. Dabei ist sich Hasan des Klischees, dass er mit dem abstrusen Vergleich bemüht, durchaus bewusst.
Hasan selbst erinnert sich bei seinem eigenen bizarren Vergleich an den US-Juristen und Buchautoren Mike Godwin. Dieser beschreibt eine Gesetzmäßigkeit, der zufolge in Internet-Debatten die Wahrscheinlichkeit von Nazi-Vergleichen mit der Dauer der Diskussion gegen eins steigt.
Die sarkastische Dimension von "Godwin’s Law" ist implizit und natürlich auch Hasan nicht entgangen. Dennoch führt er munter aus: Wie unter Hitler sei Deutschland wieder international isoliert, verabscheut und gefürchtet zugleich.
Die Briten zitieren in diesem Zusammenhang auch den Herausgeber des deutschen Meinungsmediums "Freitag", Jakob Augstein, mit den Worten, Merkels Politik gefährde alles, was die bisherigen Regierungen seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg erreicht hätten.
Merkel schaue tatenlos zu wie Athen brenne, aber auch Madrid und Rom. Es sei geradezu eine Ironie der Geschichte, dass die Regierungschefin eines Landes, das nur ungern an seine Nazi-Vergangenheit erinnert werde, nun gelassen zusehe, wie die drakonische Sparpolitik neuen (sic!) "Neo-Nazi-Parteien" wie der Front National in Frankreich oder der "Goldenen Morgenröte" in Griechenland Zulauf verschaffe.

Merkels "Austerität-über-alles-Politik" zerstöre das europäische Projekt, verarme die Nachbarn der Deutschen und riskiere eine neue globale Depression. "Sie muss gestoppt werden", schließt der Artikel.
Der "NewStatesman", eine traditonsreiche und mehrfach ausgezeichnete linke Wochenzeitung, gilt als respektable Publikation mit nahmhaften Kolumnisten.

With the Euro in Flames, Our Civil Servants are Still Taking Their Orders from Brussels Adam Collyer, 17th May 2012

Euro-Retter rudern zurück: Tür für Griechenland wieder offen Deutsche Wirtschafts Nachrichten, 28.06.2015, 00:46 Uhr

Die Finanzminister der Eurozone haben offenbar Angst vor der eigenen Courage bekommen. Hatten sie am Nachmittag noch erklärt, dass die Tür für Griechenland geschlossen sei, so erklärten sie am Abend feierlich: Die Tür für Griechenland ist weit offen.
Die 18 Euro-Finanzminister wollen Griechenland nach Angaben des französischen Finanzministers Michel Sapin im Euro halten. „Die 18 Länder haben alle klar gesagt, dass Griechenland im Euro ist und bleiben soll, egal wie groß die Schwierigkeiten jetzt sind„, sagte der französische Sozialist am Samstagabend nach der Sondersitzung der 18 Euro-Partner ohne ihren griechischen Kollegen.

Greek debt crisis: Is Grexit inevitable? BBC News, 29th June 2015

Greek banks have been closed and strict limits placed on cash withdrawals as Greece’s government is set to default on a debt repayment to the IMF on 30 June of €1.5bn (.7bn; £1.06bn).

Euro-Krise: IWF-Analyse zeigt Desaster von historischem Ausmaß 02.07.2015
Insgesamt sind bisher 240 Milliarden Euro an Krediten aus den verschiedenen Rettungsfonds nach Griechenland geflossen, um das Finanzsystem in der Eurozone zu stabilisieren. Nicht eingerechnet sind die Notkredite der EZB, die sich vermutlich auch noch einmal auf 120 Milliarden Euro belaufen werden. Doch das alles hat nicht gereicht, um die griechische Wirtschaft auf einen Weg des Wachstums zurückzuführen.

Schäuble schlägt Dollar ($) statt Euro (€) für Griechenland vor 10.07.2015
"Ich habe meinem Freund Jack Lew angeboten, dass wir Puerto Rico in die Eurozone aufnehmen könnten, falls die Vereinigten Staaten willens wären, Griechenland in die Dollar-Union aufzunehmen", sagte Schäuble am Donnerstag bei einer Veranstaltung der Bundesbank.
…. Das USA-AußenTerritorium Puerto Rico trägt eine Schuldenlast von 73 Milliarden Dollar – das ist etwa ein Fünftel von Griechenlands 360 Milliarden Euro.

13. Januar 2016: Ude trifft Varoufakis: "Under Construction: Europe" {?}
…politische Bewegung, die Varoufakis am 9. Februar in Berlin vorstellen will. Paneuropäisch …

The Empire of Debt by Dee Hon
debt management
Image by Renegade98
From Adbusters #74, Nov-Dec 2007

The Empire of Debt

Money for nothing. Own a home for no money down. Do not pay for your appliances until 2012. This is the new American Dream, and for the last few years, millions have been giddily living it. Dead is the old version, the one historian James Truslow Adams introduced to the world as “that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement.”

Such Puritan ideals – to work hard, to save for a better life – didn’t die from the natural causes of age and obsolescence. We killed them, willfully and purposefully, to create a new gilded age. As a society, we told ourselves we could all get rich, put our feet up on the decks of our new vacation homes, and let our money work for us. Earning is for the unenlightened. Equity is the new golden calf. Sadly, this is a hollow dream. Yes, luxury homes have been hitting new gargantuan heights. Ferrari sales have never been better. But much of the ever-expanding wealth is an illusory façade masking a teetering tower of debt – the greatest the world has seen. It will collapse, in a disaster of our own making.

Distress is already rumbling through Wall Street. Subprime mortgages leapt into the public consciousness this summer, becoming the catchphrase for the season. Hedge fund masterminds who command salaries in the tens of millions for their supposed financial prescience, but have little oversight or governance, bet their investors’ multi-multi-billions on the ability that subprime borrowers – who by very definition have lower incomes and/or rotten credit histories – would miraculously find means to pay back loans far exceeding what they earn. They didn’t, and surging loan defaults are sending shockwaves through the markets. Yet despite the turmoil this collapse is wreaking, it’s just the first ripple to hit the shore. America’s debt crisis runs deep.

How did it come to this? How did America, collectively and as individuals, become a nation addicted to debt, pushed to and over the edge of bankruptcy? The savings rate hangs below zero. Personal bankruptcies are reaching record heights. America’s total debt averages more than 0,000 for every man, woman, and child. On a broader scale, China holds nearly trillion in US debt. Japan and other countries are also owed big.

The story begins with labor. The decades following World War II were boom years. Economic growth was strong and powerful industrial unions made the middle-class dream attainable for working-class citizens. Workers bought homes and cars in such volume they gave rise to the modern suburb. But prosperity for wage earners reached its zenith in the early 1970s. By then, corporate America had begun shredding the implicit social contract it had with its workers for fear of increased foreign competition. Companies cut costs by finding cheap labor overseas, creating a drag on wages.

In 1972, wages reached their peak. According to the US department of Labor Statistics, workers earned 1 a week, in inflation-adjusted 1982 dollars. Since then, it’s been a downward slide. Today, real wages are nearly one-fifth lower – this, despite real GDP per capita doubling over the same period.

Even as wages fell, consumerism was encouraged to continue soaring to unprecedented heights. Buying stuff became a patriotic duty that distinguished citizens from their communist Cold War enemies. In the eighties, consumers’ growing fearlessness towards debt and their hunger for goods were met with Ronald Reagan’s deregulation the lending industry. Credit not only became more easily attainable, it became heavily marketed. Credit card debt, at 0 billion, is now triple what it was in 1988, after adjusting for inflation. Barbecues and TV screens are now the size of small cars. So much the better to fill the average new home, which in 2005 was more than 50 percent larger than the average home in 1973.

This is all great news for the corporate sector, which both earns money from loans to consumers, and profits from their spending. Better still, lower wages means lower costs and higher profits. These factors helped the stock market begin a record boom in the early ‘80s that has continued almost unabated until today.

These conditions created vast riches for one class of individuals in particular: those who control what is known as economic rent, which can be the income “earned” from the ownership of an asset. Some forms of economic rent include dividends from stocks, or capital gains from the sale of stocks or property. The alchemy of this rent is that it requires no effort to produce money.

Governments, for their part, encourage the investors, or rentier class. Economic rent, in the form of capital gains, is taxed at a lower rate than earned income in almost every industrialized country. In the US in particular, capital gains are being taxed at ever-decreasing rates. A person whose job pays 0,000 can owe 35 percent of that in taxes compared to the 15 percent tax rate for someone whose stock portfolio brings home the same amount.

Given a choice between working for diminishing returns and joining the leisurely riches of the rentier, people pursue the latter. If the rentier class is fabulously rich, why can’t everyone become a member? People of all professions sought to have their money work for them, pouring money into investments. This spurred the explosion of the finance industry, people who manage money for others. The now- trillion mutual fund industry is 700 times the size it was in the 1970s. Hedge funds, the money managers for the super-rich, numbered 500 companies in 1990, managing billion in assets. Now there are more than 6,000 hedge firms handling more than trillion dollars in assets.

In recent years, the further enticement of low interest rates has spawned a boom for two kinds of rentiers at the crux of the current debt crisis: home buyers and private equity firms. But it should also be noted that low interest rates are themselves the product of outsourced labor.

America gets goods from China. China gets dollars from the US. In order to keep the value of their currency low so that exports stay cheap, China doesn’t spend those dollars in China, but buys us assets like bonds. China now holds some 0 billion in such US IOUs. This massive borrowing of money from China (and to a lesser extent, from Japan) sent us interest rates to record lows.

Now the hamster wheel really gets spinning. Cheap borrowing costs encouraged millions of Americans to borrow more, buying homes and sending housing prices to record highs. Soaring house prices encouraged banks to loan freely, which sent even more buyers into the market – many who believed the hype that the real estate investment offered a never-ending escalator to riches and borrowed heavily to finance their dreams of getting ahead. People began borrowing against the skyrocketing value of their homes, to buy furniture, appliances, and TVs. These home equity loans added 0 billion to the US economy in 2004 alone.

It was all so utopian. The boom would feed on itself. Nobody would ever have to work again or produce anything of value. All that needed to be done was to keep buying and selling each other’s houses with money borrowed from the Chinese.

On Wall Street, private equity firms played a similar game: buying companies with borrowed billions, sacking employees to cut costs, and then selling the companies to someone else who did the same. These leveraged buyouts inflated share values, minting billionaires all around. The virtues that produce profit – innovation, entrepreneurialism and good management – stopped mattering so long as there were bountiful capital gains.

But the party is coming to a halt. An endless housing boom requires an endless supply of ever-greater suckers to pay more for the same homes. The rich, as Voltaire said, require an abundant supply of poor. Mortgage lenders have mined even deeper into the ranks of the poor to find takers for their loans. Among the practices included teaser loans that promised low interest rates that jumped up after the first few years. Sub-prime borrowers were told the future pain would never come, as they could keep re-financing against the ever-growing value of their homes. Lenders repackaged the shaky loans as bonds to sell to cash-hungry investors like hedge funds.

Of course, the supply of suckers inevitably ran out. Housing prices leveled off, beginning what promises to be a long, downward slide. Just as the housing boom fed upon itself, so too, will its collapse. The first wave of sub-prime borrowers have defaulted. A flood of foreclosures sent housing prices falling further. Lenders somehow got blindsided by news that poor people with bad credit couldn’t pay them back. Frightened, they staunched the flow of easy credit, further depleting the supply of homebuyers and squeezing debt-fueled private equity. Hedge funds that merrily bought sub-prime loans collapsed.

More borrowers will soon be unable to make payments on their homes and credit cards as the supply of rent dries up. Consumer spending, and thus corporate profits, will fall. The shrinking economy will further depress workers’ wages. For most people, the dream of easy money will never come true, because only the truly rich can live it. Everyone else will have to keep working for less, shackled to a mountain of debt.

_Dee Hon is a Vancouver-based writer has contributed to The Tyee and Vancouver magazine.

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Image from page 100 of “Poly, The” (1916)
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Identifier: polythe1916bill
Title: Poly, The
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Authors: Billings Polytechnic Institute
Subjects: RMC yearbooks yearbooks Rocky Mountain College History Billings Polytechnic History
Publisher: Billings Polytechnic Institute
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That Was the Year That Was – 1970
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In 1970, the self-made builder’s son Edward Heath came to power promising a "quiet revolution" that would turn around the fortunes of Great Britain PLC.

The 1970s began under Tory rule, with Ted Heath as Prime Minister. Yet it was a very different kind of Tory party. Heath was a liberal Conservative who believed in a “third way”. He was pro-union and pro-EEC, and launched the Department of the Environment. He favored devolution of power to Scotland and Wales. When Rolls-Royce aircraft engines was about to go bankrupt, he led a successful move to nationalize the company until it could be returned to a stable financial footing.

Then things started to go wrong, as they did almost immediately when council workers went on strike in October 1970 (a foretaste of the “winter of discontent” eight years later), Heath quickly buckled to the prevailing conventional political and economic wisdom. Failing industries were bailed out or nationalised. And as the government pumped up demand in a bid to contain rising unemployment, a succession of baroque incomes policies were conceived to keep a lid on inflation.

Of all post-war decades, the 1970s has undoubtedly had the worst press, but the truth is that most ordinary families in 1970s Britain were better off than ever. "With higher wages for the working classes, access to affordable housing, free health care, free higher education and low levels of crime, all in a much less unequal society, life then was superior to life as experienced by most of us today".

1970 you were likely to die at 68

You smoked heavily. You missed out on university. You didn’t take foreign holidays. You didn’t have a car. You had a job in a factory. And you were likely to die at 68.

It sounds like a pretty grim picture nowadays, but hold on a minute. That was probably you – at least if you were a man in 1970.

If you were a woman back in 1970, much of that catalogue might have applied to you too, and in addition, you were married and would have had your first baby before you were 25, and you were spending a fifth of the household income on food (whereas these days, your biggest expenditure will be on energy bills, probably for all those gadgets you own).

It shows that during the course of over four decades, our lives, while similar in broad outline, have changed in a myriad subtle ways: we are living longer, being educated for longer, being alone more, taking more holidays and are healthier in some ways (fewer of us smoke) but are less healthy in others (more of us are obese).

With the benefit of over 40 years’ hindsight, life in 1970 appears to have been ludicrously cheap. A loaf of bread cost 9p and the average weekly wage was around £32. Today, a loaf costs 53p and weekly wages are about £475. Property prices have also risen. In 1970, homebuyers could expect to pay £4,975 for a house. Today, their children would not get much change from £140,000.

It was a similar story on the roads. The Range Rover, which was launched in 1970, could have been yours for £1,998. Almost a quarter of a century later, a 4.4 litre Range Rover Vogue will set you back £57,700. The Mini, which celebrated its 11th birthday in 1970, cost around £600. Its redesigned descendant now sells for £10,500.

A glance at Britain’s social life in 1970 is equally intriguing.

A trip for two to the cinema cost less than 90p, compared with at least £9 today, while a bottle of plonk was about £1. Today it is £4.55. For those with more spirited and extravagant tastes, a bottle of whisky cost £2.69 back then, compared with £12 now.

Pub prices, too, seem foreign. A pint of lager in your local was 20p, a far cry from today’s average of £2.10. And cigarettes, which enjoyed a lot more popularity then, were 20p for 20. Today, the habit costs about £4.65 a pack.

Still, it’s not all doom and gloom. Prices have gone up but so has our spending power.

And some things have even risen for the better. In 1970, the average life expectancy in Britain was 72. Today, it is 77 – giving us five more years of spending.

Life expectancy is perhaps the most notable single change. In 1970, when Edward Heath had just become Prime Minister and The Beatles were breaking up, for men it was 68.7 years and for women it was 75 years; over 40 years on, these figures have shifted substantially. Male life expectancy is now 77.8 years, and for women it is 81.9 years. Doubtless the fall in heavy smoking has played a part in that. In 1974, 24 per cent of men and 13 per cent of women in Britain who smoked regularly were classed as heavy smokers, whereas in 2008 the figures were 7 per cent of men and only one in 20 women.

But not all of us have become more healthy as the years have gone by: many of us have piled on the pounds. Although figures recording obesity only go back 15 years, there is a clear increasing trend.

1970 Music

1970 Music continues to make significant impact with the largest ever rock festival held on the Isle of Wight with 600,000 people attending, including some of the biggest name in music including Jimi Hendrix and The Who. This is also the year The Concord makes it’s first its first supersonic flight. Another significant change is the age of voting is now lowered to 18 in the US.

The Isle of Wight Festival takes place . 600,000 people attend the largest rock festival of all time. Artists include Jimi Hendrix, The Who, The Doors, Chicago, Richie Havens, John Sebastian, Joan Baez, Ten Years After, Emerson, Lake and Palmer and Jethro Tull.

Jimi Hendrix dies of barbiturate overdose in London age 27

Janis Joplin dies in a cheap motel from a heroin overdose age 27

Simon and Garfunkel release their final album together, Bridge Over Troubled Water. The Title Track won the Grammy for song of the year.

The Beatles break up. By the end of the year, each member had released a solo album.

George C. Scott gives one of film’s most memorable performances in Patton. He won the Best Actor Oscar for his turn as the title character, but refused the gold statuette.

The first festival at Glastonbury

The first Festival was held on the day after Jimi Hendrix died, over a two day period and before long “word had got around”. It was the Blues festival at the Bath & West Showground that had inspired Michael Eavis to begin a festival of his own although on a smaller scale.

The first festival at Glastonbury was not free and was decidedly overshadowed by the 1971 event, probably for good reasons . This festival was very sparsely attended , despite having Marc Bolan , Ian Anderson, Keith Christmas , Quintessence , Stackridge , Al Stewart, Amazing Blondel and Sam Apple Pie on the bill- hmmmm, perhaps thats why so few people showed up. Not exactly household names – even in 1970 – although all very respectable acts in their own right .

Badly advertised, poor organisation , not exactly an auspicious start to one of the longest running rock festivals of all time. But it was a nice site and the precedent was set as regards having a festival in the area.

Apparently government health inspectors visited the site as part of a report they were compiling about health standards at rock festivals. Interestingly, after all these years of warnings about the health hazards of food /sanitary conditions at festivals, I have yet to hear of a severe outbreak of food poisoning occurring.

Acts included: Marc Bolan, Keith Christmas, Stackridge, Al Stewart, Quintessence

Attendance: 1,500.

Price: £1 including free milk from the farm.

1970 Timeline

1 January – The age of majority for most legal purposes was reduced from 21 to 18 under terms of the Family Law Reform Act 1969.

The half crown coin ceased to be legal tender.

The National Westminster Bank began trading following merger of National Provincial Bank and Westminster Bank.

Control of London Transport passed from the London Transport Board (reporting to the Minister of Transport) to the London Transport Executive of the Greater London Council, except for country area (green) buses which passed to London Country Bus Services, a subsidiary of the National Bus Company.

4 January – The Who drummer Keith Moon fatally runs over his chauffeur with his Bentley while trying to escape a mob outside a pub. The death is later ruled an accident.

16 January – John Lennon’s London art gallery exhibit of lithographs, Bag One, is shut down by Scotland Yard for displaying "erotic lithographs"

18 January – The grave of Karl Marx was vandalised by anti-Germanic racists at Highgate in London.

21 January – Fraserburgh life-boat Duchess of Kent, on service to the Danish fishing vessel Opal, capsized with the loss of five of the six crew.

22 January – A Boeing 747 landed at Heathrow Airport, the first jumbo jet to land in Britain.

26 January – Rolling Stone Mick Jagger was fined £200 for possession of cannabis.

Simon & Garfunkel release their final album together, Bridge Over Troubled Water. It tops the album chart at regular intervals over the next two years, and becomes the best-selling album in Britain during the 1970s.

February – Chrysler UK launched its new Hillman Avenger small family car, which would be built at the Ryton plant near Coventry and compete with the likes of the Ford Escort and Vauxhall Viva.

11 February – The film The Magic Christian, starring Peter Sellers and Ringo Starr, is premiered in New York City. The film’s soundtrack album, including Badfinger’s "Come and Get It" (written and produced by Paul McCartney), is released on Apple Records.

13 February – Garden House riot, Cambridge: A demonstration at the Garden House Hotel by Cambridge University students against the Greek military junta led to police intervention; eight students subsequently received custodial sentences for their part in the affair.

English band Black Sabbath released their self titled debut album in the U.K., credited as the first major album in the heavy metal genre.

14 February – The Who records Live at Leeds in Yorkshire, England.

19 February – The Prince of Wales joined the Royal Navy.

23 February – Rolls Royce asked the government for £50 million towards the development of the RB 211-50 Airbus jet engine.

28 February – Led Zeppelin perform in Copenhagen under the pseudonym The Nobs, to avoid a threatened lawsuit by Count Eva von Zeppelin, descendant of airship designer Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

2 March – Ian Smith declared Rhodesia a republic breaking all ties with the British Crown, four years after the declaration of independence. Wilson’s government refused to recognise the new state.

6 March – The importation of pets was banned after an outbreak of rabies in Newmarket, Suffolk.

12 March – The quarantine period for cats and dogs was increased to one year as part of the government’s anti rabies measures.

13 March – The Bridgwater by-election became the first election in which 18-year-olds can vote. Tom King won the election for the Conservative Party.

17 March – Martin Peters, who scored for England in their 1966 World Cup final win, became the nation’s first £200,000 footballer in his transfer from West Ham United to Tottenham Hotspur.

19 March – David Bowie marries model Angela Barnett.

21 March – British-born singer Dana wins the 15th annual Eurovision Song Contest for Ireland with the song "All Kinds of Everything".

23 March – Eighteen victims of thalidomide were awarded a total of nearly £370,000 in compensation.

1 April – Everton won the Football League First Division title.

10 April – Paul McCartney announced his departure from The Beatles.

11 April – Chelsea and Leeds United drew 2-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, forcing a replay.

16 April – Dr Ian Paisley entered the Parliament of Northern Ireland after winning the Bannside By-election.

18 April – British Leyland announced that the Morris Minor, its longest running model which had been in production since 1948, would be discontinued at the start of next year and be replaced with a new larger car available as a four-door saloon and three-door fastback coupe, and possibly a five-door estate by 1975.

29 April – David Webb scored the winning goal as Chelsea defeated Leeds United 2-1 in the FA Cup final replay at Old Trafford, gaining them the trophy for the very first time. Last year’s winners Manchester City clinched the European Cup Winners’ Cup with a 2-1 win over Górnik Zabrze of Poland in Vienna, Austria.

8 May – The Beatles’ last album, Let It Be, is released.

16 May – The Who release Live at Leeds which is their first live album. Since its initial reception, Live at Leeds has been cited by several music critics as the best live rock recording of all time.

19 May – The government made a £20 million loan available to help save the financially troubled luxury car and aircraft engine manufacturer Rolls Royce.

22 May – A tour by the South African cricket team was called off after several African and Asian countries threaten to boycott the Commonwealth Games.

23/24 May – Hollywood Festival, Newcastle-under-Lyme is staged featuring a line-up including The Grateful Dead, Black Sabbath, Free, and Jose Feliciano. Everyone is completely upstaged by the previously unknown Mungo Jerry, whose debut single "In the Summertime" becomes the best-selling hit of the year.

24 May – The Britannia Bridge, carrying the railway across the Menai Strait, was badly damaged by fire.

28 May – Bobby Moore, captain of the England national football team, was arrested and released on bail in Bogotá, Colombia, on suspicion of stealing a bracelet in the Bogotá Bracelet incident.

29 May – Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act abolished actions for breach of promise and the right of a husband to claim damages for adultery with his wife.

1 June – Harold Wilson was hit in the face with an egg thrown by a Young Conservative demonstrator.

2 June – Cleddau Bridge, in Pembrokeshire, collapsed during erection, killing four, leading to introduction of new standards for box girder bridges.

4 June – Tonga became independent of the UK.

10 June – Just a few months after the Conservatives had enjoyed opinion poll leads of more than 20 points, opinion polls were showing Labour several points ahead of the Tories with eight days to go before the general election. If Labour won the election, it would be a record third consecutive general election win for the party and would probably result in the end of Edward Heath’s five-year reign as Conservative leader.

13 June – Actor Laurence Olivier was made a life peer in the Queen’s Birthday Honours list. He was the first actor to be made a lord.

14 June – England’s defence of the FIFA World Cup ended when they lost 3-2 to West Germany in the Mexico quarter final.

17 June – The bodies of two children were found buried in shallow graves in woodland at Waltham Abbey, Essex. They were believed to be those of Susan Blatchford (11) and Gary Hanlon (12), who were last seen alive near their homes in North London on 31 March this year.

British Leyland created a niche in the four-wheel drive market by launching its luxury Range Rover, which was to be marketed as a more upmarket alternative to the utilarian Land Rover that had been in production since 1948.

David Storey’s Home premiered at the Royal Court Theatre.

18 June – The General Election was held, the first in which 18-year-olds could vote.

19 June – The General Election proved to have been won by Edward Heath’s Conservative Party by a majority of 30 seats, a major surprise as most of the opinion polls had shown that Harold Wilson’s Labour were likely to stay in power. Among the new members of parliament are Neil Kinnock and John Smith for Labour, and Kenneth Clarke, Kenneth Baker, Norman Fowler and Geoffrey Howe for the Tories.

21 June – British golfer Tony Jacklin won the U.S. Open.

22 June – The Methodist Church allowed women to become full ministers for the first time.

26 June – Riots broke out in Derry over the arrest of Mid-Ulster MP Bernadette Devlin.

29 June – Caroline Thorpe, 32-year-old wife of Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe and the mother of his two-year-old son Rupert, died in a car crash.

3 July – Three civilians were killed and 10 troops injured when British Army soldiers battled with IRA troops in Belfast.

4 July – 112 people were found dead among the wreckage of a British Airways Manchester to Barcelona aeroplane that went missing yesterday. The wreckage was found in the mountains of Northern Spain, and there were no survivors.

8 July – Roy Jenkins became deputy leader of the Labour Party.

12 July – Jack Nicklaus won the Open Golf Championship at St Andrews, defeating fellow American Doug Sanders in an eighteen-hole play-off.

15 July – Dockers voted to strike leading to the docks strike of 1970.

16 July – A state of emergency was declared to deal with the dockers’ strike.

16–25 July – The British Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh.

17 July – Lord Pearson proposed settlement of docks strike.

30 July – The docks strike was settled.

31 July – The last issue of grog in the Royal Navy was distributed.

9 August – Police battled with black rioters in Notting Hill, London.

20 August – England national football team captain Bobby Moore was cleared of stealing a bracelet while on World Cup duty in Colombia.

21 August – The moderate Social Democratic and Labour Party was established in Northern Ireland.

26–31 August – Third Isle of Wight Festival attracted over 500,000 pop music fans, with appearances by Jimi Hendrix, The Who, The Doors and Joan Baez.

27 August – The Royal Shakespeare Company’s revolutionary production of Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, directed by Peter Brook, opened at Stratford.

9 September – BOAC Flight 775 was hijacked by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine after taking off from Bahrain—the first time a British plane had been hijacked.

17 September – Jimi Hendrix makes his last appearance, with Eric Burdon & War jamming at Ronnie Scotts Club in London. Hendrix dies the following day from a barbiturate overdose at his London hotel, aged of 27.

18 September – American rock star Jimi Hendrix, 27, died in London from a suspected drug-induced heart attack.

19 September – The first Glastonbury Festival was held.

September – The Album musical Jesus Christ Superstar, by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, was released.

3 October – Tony Densham, driving the "Commuter" dragster, set a British land speed record at Elvington, Yorkshire, averaging 207.6 mph over the flying kilometre course.

5 October – BBC Radio 4 first broadcast consumer affairs magazine programme You and Yours; it would still be running forty years later.

12 October – After a debacled launch only 18 months previously, British Leyland announce a much improved Austin Maxi featuring a new gearchange, increased engine size and much improved trim, answering many of the critical points raised by the motoring press at the car’s original launch.

15 October – The government created the Department of Trade and Industry and the Department of the Environment.

Thames sailing barge Cambria, the last vessel trading under sail alone in British waters, loaded her last freight, at Tilbury.

The last narrowboats to carry long-distance freight commercially on the canals of the United Kingdom arrived with their last load, coal from Atherstone for a west London jam factory.

19 October – British Petroleum discovered a large oil field in the North Sea.

23 October – The Mark III Ford Cortina went on sale. At launch a full range of models are offered including 2 door and estate variants. Unlike previous models this Cortina was developed as a Ford Europe model sharing the floor-pan with the similar German Ford Taunus

25 October – The Canonization of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales by Pope Paul VI took place.

17 November – The first Page Three girl appeared in The Sun.

20 November – The ten shilling note ceased to be legal tender.

27 November – The Gay Liberation Front organised its first march in London.

10 December – Bernard Katz won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation".

26 December – Athlete Lillian Board, 22, died in Munich, West Germany, after a three-month battle against cancer.

31 December – The Beatles split up after 10 years.

Richard Branson started the Virgin Group with discounted mail-order sales of popular records.

The last forced child migration to Australia took place.

Nijinsky became the first horse for 35 years to win the English Triple Crown by finishing first in the Epsom Derby, 2,000 Guineas and St Leger.

Mathematician Alan Baker won a Fields Medal.

Trade union membership now accounts for nearly 50% of the workforce.

Computer Floppy Disks Introduced.

Oh the joys of the open road!
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Timeline of motoring history 1679 – 1939

1679
Practical French scientist Denis Papin invents the pressure-cooker or ‘digester’.

1690
Many before him have experimented with single charges of gunpowder as a means of moving a piston in a bore but, Denis Papin publishes his ideas for harnessing steam as an alternative, to achieve repeated cycles of movement. In doing so, he recognises the potential for a mechanical alternative to animals for mobilising carriages. He goes on to build the first steam engine, which is used to pump water to a canal running between Kassel and Karlshaven in Germany.

1698
English military engineer Thomas Savery uses Papin’s ‘Digester’ as the basis of a crude steam engine for pumping water out of flooded mine-shafts.

1712
Denis Papin, visiting London in the hope of finding patronage, writes to a friend reporting his failure and asking for financial support to pay for his return to Germany. Never heard of again, it is likely that Papin died in London in abject poverty and complete anonymity.

Thomas Newcomen, an "ironmonger" and blacksmith of Dartmouth, England, patents the "Atmospheric Steam Engine" and, together with John Calley starts to build and sell engines for pumping water out of mines.

1765
James Watt, while engaged in repairing a Newcomen engine, comes up with several improvements which substantially change its method of operation and increase its efficiency. In so doing he lays a firm foundation for the design of all steam engines yet to come.

1769
In Paris, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, a military engineer, demonstrates a self propelled steam vehicle – the first on record. The French government requests Cugnot to design and build a larger vehicle, capable of moving large amounts of artillery.

1770
At the French government’s immense cost, Cugnot builds ‘Fardier’ a large three- wheeled artillery carriage and creates history’s first motor accident by knocking down part of a wall.

1787
Oliver Evans of Maryland patents a steam engine for the use in powering carts and carriages.

1801
Richard Trevithick, an early pioneer of the Steam Railway, builds the first successful motor vehicle, and drives it through Camborne, Cornwall. Four days later it is destroyed by fire.

1803
Trevithick builds a second steam powered carriage, which makes several successful runs through the streets of London. Unfortunately it also frightens horses and kindles considerable public hostility.

1805
In 1804 Oliver Evans, builds the world’s first amphibious vehicle, ‘Orukter Amphibolas’, a steam powered dredger on wheels, for the Philadelphia Health Service. In July of 1805 it makes a one and a half mile journey from Central-Square to the banks of the Schuykill. It weighs 20 tons and is powered by a 5 HP twin cylinder beam engine driving both the paddle and 2 wheels. With no method of steering on land, the vehicle is much more successful as a boat.

1807
In Switzerland, Francois Isaac de Rivaz builds, and demonstrates the first working internal combustion engine. It is fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and reliant on a foot-operated exhaust valve. Mounted on small trolley, travels just a few metres.

1816
Concerned about the number of people being killed by exploding steam engines Reverend Robert Stirling invents and patents an alternative which is not only safer but also much more efficient. It runs on hot air and rotation is caused by heat differentials as it passes between various parts of the engine. It can use a number of alternative fuels to heat the air and, in spite of its improved safety and superior efficiency, it remains largely ignored for use in vehicles.

1826
Samuel Brown patents and builds his "gas-and-vacuum" engine. It has two cylinders linked by a rocking beam, with a capacity of 8,800cc and an output of just 4hp. The engine powering a carriage successfully drives up Shooters Hill at Blackheath, on the outskirts of London.

1829
Goldsworthy Gurney, having built his ‘London and Bath’ steam coach, sets out on the world’s first long distance coach service, a round trip from London to Bath and back. While the outward journey is marked by many breakdowns the return journey is accomplished in ten hours at an average speed of 8.4 miles per hour. Gurney is later to be the inventor of the theatrical ‘Limelight’.

1830
A regular steam omnibus service is established between Stratford, East London, and Paddington, West London by Walter Hancock. Using ‘Infant’, his second steam carriage.

1831
Sir Charles Dance sets up the world’s first scheduled passenger service by automobiles between Gloucester and Cheltenham, using three Gurney steam carriages. It operates for just a few months.

1834
In London, Walter Hancock sets up a chain of garages to service his passenger carrying steam omnibuses en route between their destinations.

1845
Robert William Thomson of Stonehaven, Scotland patents the world’s first vulcanized rubber pneumatic tyre. It is well received on trials in London but does not reach production for fear of its cost.

1859
Belgian J. J. Etienne Lenoir builds the worlds first practicable internal combustion engine running on a mixture of coal gas and air and using a ‘jumping-spark’ ignition system. A company is formed in Paris to develop the engine further.

1860
Le Monde Illustre. Devotes an article to J. J. Etienne Lenoir’s first gas- engined carriage.
First oil well in USA is drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania.

1862
French engineer Alphonse Beau de Rochas, patents the four-stroke cycle used in most modern internal combustion engines.

1863
Lenoir demonstrates a second carriage, powered by a 1.5hp ‘liquid hydrocarbon’ engine. Several six-mile journeys are successfully completed between Paris and Vincennes.

1864
Alexander II Tsar of Russia buys one of Lenoir’s carriages making it the first export sale of a car in history.

1865
Britain’s government introduces the ‘Locomotives on Highways Act’ more widely known as the ‘Red Flag Act’. This requires that all mechanically powered road vehicles must have three drivers, must be limited to 4 mph on the open road and 2 mph in town and, must be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag, to warn the public.

1866
In Germany Nikolaus August Otto patents a "free-piston" atmospheric engine.

1868
First steam driven vehicle ‘Cornubia’, exported to India.

1872
Nikolaus Otto and Eugen Langen form N.A. Otto & Cie to produce the ‘free-piston’ engine.

1877
The smooth-running "Otto silent" engine is patented in Germany as employees, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach prepare it for production.

1879
An initial ‘master patent’ for the automobile is filed in the United States by engineer and Patents Lawyer George B. Selden. He extends his application period for many years, by filing many amendments to delay its issue. Meanwhile he struggles to establish his own production capability.

1885
A petroleum (gasoline) powered four stroke engine is used to adapt a horse carriage by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach.

French inventor Ferdinand Forest, builds an opposed-piston engine with low tension magneto ignition and a spray carburettor.

1886
Nicolaus Otto fails to obtain a patent covering his four-stroke engine because of Alphonse Beau de Rochas’ 1862 patent in France. Nevertheless we still refer to the four-stroke principle as the Otto cycle

Carl Benz’s three wheeler, makes its first successful runs. This is the first petroleum powered car to be designed from scratch, rather than adapted from a horse-drawn carriage.

1888
John Boyd Dunlop a Scottish Veterinary Surgeon living in Belfast, re-invents and re-patents the pneumatic tyre without knowledge of the previous work and patent of fellow Scott Robert William Thomson.

In the UK, Brighton inventor Magnus Volk begins production of electric carriages. His electric Railway still runs along the coast today.

Karl Benz starts to produce three wheeled, petroleum powered cars; sales are slow.

1889
Daimler sells rights for France to a new V configured twin cylinder engine to Panhard & Levassor

1890
With no thought of manufacturing cars, Panhard & Levassor licence the Peugeot ironmongery business to use the engine in automotive applications.

Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft set up by Gottleib Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany.

1891
M. Levassor decides to build cars after all, designing and building a rear engined car.
Frederick R. Simms acquires Daimler rights in the UK, with the intention of using the engines to power motor launches.

Ferdinand Forest produces the world’s first four cylinder petrol engine with mechanical valve operation for use in boats and goes on to build the world’s first six cylinder engine for the same purpose. The marine application ensures that his contribution to motoring history is ignored.

1892
Levassor introduces a new design of motor car which is to become the template for the vast majority of designs for many years to come. Four wheels, front mounted engine, sliding gear transmission and rear wheel drive. At first this configuration is known as Systeme Panhard.

1893
Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James Frank Duryea of Springfield, Massachussetts build their first motor buggy, Charles having an established background in the cycle trade. They are credited with being the first in America to build a practicable automobile.

Karl Benz introduces the "Viktoria", powered by a 3hp petroleum (gasoline) engine with a top speed of 11mph. Forty-five cars are in this year.

1894
After many years of financial difficulty, Karl Benz begins ‘mass production’ of two models, the Velo and the Viktoria.

Henry G. Morris and Pedro Salom of Philadelphia open America’s first car factory to build Electrobat electric cars.

The Apperson brothers and Elwood Haynes of Kokomo, Indiana collaborate to build an automobile.

1895
Karl Benz sells 135 motor vehicles in the year.

Sir David Salomans organises Britain’s first exhibition of motor vehicles in the open air in October at Tunbridge Wells, Kent.

In November, the first indoor exhibition of cars in Britain takes place, at the Stanley Cycle Show.
Selden’s master patent is finally granted in the USA, after years of revision.

First petrol engine produced by De Dion and Bouton.

The Autocar magazine founded by J. J. Henry Sturmey.

Frederick, Frank and George Lanchester build the first all-British, four-wheel, petrol driven car featuring many technical innovations. Lanchester will go on to rival Rolls Royce in their reputation for excellence, but fail to achieve long-term commercial success.

A Peugeot L’Eclair becomes the first car to run on Michelin pneumatic tyres.

1896
The British Motor Industry is born when Harry J. Lawson launches the Daimler Motor Company in Coventry.

British Parliament repeals the Red Flag Act and raises the speed limit to l4mph; Lawson organises the first Run from London to Brighton to commemorate ‘Emancipation Day’.

Duryea brings two cars over to Europe for the Emancipation Day event.

American pioneers Henry Ford, Charles Brady King, Ransome Eli Olds and Alexander Winton all complete and test their first cars.

The first car to be sold with pneumatic tyres as standard is Leon Bollee’s Voiturette.

Harry J. Lawson forms the Great Horseless Carriage Company (later the Motor Manufacturing Company) to acquire the rights to all important Continental patents, in an effort to gain control of the British motor industry.

1897
Emil Jellinek, financier, international diplomat and racing enthusiast, orders the first four cylinder Daimler.

The first commercially available steam cars are manufactured by twin brothers Francis and Freelan Stanley.

Alexander Winton a bicycle manufacturer of Cleveland, Ohio incorporates the Winton Motor Carriage Co.

The Pope Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut, at the time the USA’s largest cycle manufacturer, begin their attempt to build cars in large quantities.

A British-built Daimler is driven from John O’Groats to Lands End by Henry Sturmey, at the time a journalist with ‘The Autocar’ magazine.

The Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland is founded by F.R.Simms.
Emile Levassor dies.

R.E. Olds and a group of Lansing businessmen invest ,000 to create The Olds Motor Vehicle Company.

Leon Serpollet builds his first steam car.

1898
James Ward Packard of Warren, Ohio, becomes one of the earliest buyers of a Winton and, immediately unsatisfied with it’s reliability and performance begins literally, to ‘pick it to pieces’.

Rudolf Diesel is granted a patent for an internal combustion engine where extremely high compression of the fuel/air mixture causes self-ignition, rather than a spark.

Using a De Dion engine and axle, Louise Renault builds his first car.

Panhard-Levassor adopt the steering wheel instead of the tiller.

De Dion Bouton introduce the Voiturette.

Coventry-Daimler release their first four cylinder model.

The first Napier power unit is built.

1899
FIAT, Sunbeam, Wolseley, Albion and Isotta Fraschini begin production.

In the USA, the Olds Motor Vehicle Company also begins Production.

1900
Gottlieb Daimler dies at the age of 66. One week later Emil Jellinek secures an exclusivity agreement with Wilhelm Maybach. The cars in which he has been involved and will be marketing, will now be named after his favourite daughter, Mercedes.

The Thousand Miles Trial is organised by the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland to demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the motor vehicle to the British public. Many people will see a car for the first time in their lives.

American manufacturers produce a total of 4192 cars, each selling at an average price of 00.00.

1901
With an exclusive sales agreement and some technical input from Emile Jellinek , Daimler at Bad-Cannstatt introduces the new ‘Mercedes’. Jellinek will both race these cars with great success and sell them to a personally selected clientele.

Ettore Bugatti wins the Milan Grand Prix in his Type 2 and exhibits it at the Milan International Motorcar Exhibition. He is approached by de-Dietrich of Niederbronn in the Alsace region and offered a licensing deal to design cars for them. Since he is still legally a minor, his father Carlo signs the contract.

The Olsmobile ‘Curved Dash’ model becomes the world’s first mass-produced petroleum (gas) powered car.

John Starley dies, without seeing a Rover car go into production.

1902
Packard patents and introduces the "H" gearshift pattern so familiar today.

Dr E C Lehwess sets out on the first attempt to drive around the world in a specially adapted Panhard Levassor bus named "Passe Partout" ("Anything Goes"). With no time-limit his intended route runs from London, through Europe to Asia, from where the bus will be shipped to California to cross the USA and return to England by ship across the Atlantic Ocean. He gets as far as Nizhni Novgorod in Eastern Russia, where "Passe Partout" and the attempt, have to be abandoned in deep snow.

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders is founded by Frederick R. Simms.

1903
The British Parliament passes the Motor Car Act, raising the speed limit from 12 to 20mph, introducing driving licences and establishing the registration and numbering of cars.

17,000 vehicles are now registered in Britain.

Henry Ford finally succeeds in raising ,000.00 to found the Ford Motor Company and begin production and sales of his Model A runabout.

In Detroit, the Cadillac Motor Car Company is founded by precision engineer Henry Martyn Leland.

In London, The Vauxhall Iron Works builds its first car.

Marcel Renault is one of 10 drivers killed in that year’s Paris-Madrid race.

Administration of George B. Selden’s ‘master patent for the automobile’ is taken over by the newly formed Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, with the intention of pursuing numerous manufacturers for infringement, to gain compensation and future royalties.

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders hosts its first motor show at the Crystal Palace, in South London.

The first completely new Benz, the front engined ‘Parsifal 12/18’, is designed by Marius Barbarou and introduced to compete with the very successful Mercedes Simplex.

A six cylinder, four wheel drive racing car is introduced by Dutch manufacturer Spyker.

The first six cylinder production car is introduced by Napier.

James H. Whiting, co-founder of the Flint Wagon Works, persuades his partners to buy the Buick Motor Car Company, at that time a very small car manufacturer. Whiting becomes President and David Buick is General Manager.

Mary Anderson is granted a patent for a handle-operated windshield wiper, originally intended to help the streetcar drivers of New York.

1904
On January 1st, The Motor Car Act becomes law in Great Britain.

Having built his first motor car Henry Royce meets Charles Stewart Rolls, already successful in the sales of quality cars in London and Royce agrees to manufacture a range of cars exclusively for sale by CS Rolls & Co. They are to be known by the name Rolls-Royce.

The Sturtevant brothers of Boston, Massachusetts invent the first automatic gearbox. With two forward speeds it is dependent on rotation by the engine, of centrifugal weights which, all too often disintegrate. The unit may not be a complete success but at least it points the way for future developments.

Ford begins to export cars to Britain.

Having invented the modern bicycle 18 years earlier, Rover embarks on the manufacture of cars.

De Launay Belleville is founded in Saint Denis sur Seine, central France, with Marius Barbarou as engineer.

William Crapo Durant, Co-owner of Durant-Dort Carriage Company, the USA’s largest carriage makers, is approached by James Whiting to promote his Buick automobiles. Durant becomes Buick’s General Manager.

Having refused to pay royalties to the Association of Licensed Automotive Manufacturers for infringement of George B Selden’s master patent, Henry Ford is taken to court. Key to Ford’s defence is that Selden has never even built a car and the validity of the patent is therefore questionable. The judge orders Selden to build a car in accordance with his patent.

1905
Herbert Austin, resigns as general manager of Wolseley to set up his own company at Longbridge, Birmingham.

The American the market for cars is enlarged by the introduction of installment finance plans.

The Automobile Association is set up to represent the interests of British motorists finding themselves easy targets for Police officers keen to gain promotion based on the numbers of speeding motorists caught and convicted!

1906
The Royal Automobile Club (RAC) introduce a horsepower formula, largely based on the Cylinder bore of an engine.

The successful commercial collaboration between Henry Royce and C S Rolls results in the formation of the Rolls-Royce company and the launch of the 40/50hp six-cylinder ‘Silver Ghost’, soon to be hailed as ‘the best car in the world’.

Ford introduces the Model N at the New York Auto Show. Selling initially at 0,

The American car industry produces 33,500 cars.

Former Fiat test-driver Vincenzo Lancia sets up his own company in Turin with his friend and colleague Claudio Fogolin.

Britain exports a total of two cars per month to France while importing a total of 400 cars per month from France.

Otto Zachow and William Besserdich of Clintonville, Wisconsin, built the first successful 4-wheel-drive car.

1907
A year after its announcement, the price of Ford’s Model N had already risen to 0.

King Edward VII awards the Automobile Club the Royal accolade.

Willys-Overland is formed following the purchase of the Overland Company of Indianapilolis by John Willys.

Over 60,000 Cars are now registered in Britain.

A Rolls-Royce ‘Silver Ghost’ completes a 15000 miles test under supervision of the RAC, with just one enforced stop.

Also completing a 15,000 mile test is a 45hp Hotchkiss, wearing out 46 tyres in the process.

Otto Zachow and William Besserdich begin a company called the Four Wheel Drive Auto Co.

1908
Ford build the first Model T. This year’s production totals 8000.

Based on a previous, failed attempt to bring together America’s top four car manufacturers William Crapo Durant incorporates General Motors of New Jersey (GM) with a capital of ,000. Within 12 days the company has raised ,000,000 cash, enough to buy Buick and Oldsmobile in quick succession.

In London The Royal Automobile Club awards Cadillac the Dewar Trophy following the dismantling, mixing and re-assembly of components from three ‘Model K’ runabouts.

1909
The General Motors Company acquires Cadillac and Oakland.

William Durant fails to raise the .5 million needed to buy Ford.

Louis Chevrolet drives a Buick to victory in the fifth "Indy car" race at Crown Point, Indianapolis.

Fernand Renault is dies after a long illness. Now alone at the helm, Louis Renault changes the company’s name to Les Automobiles Renault.

While still engaged by de Deutz, Ettore Bugatti and good friend Felix Kortz build the ‘Type 10’ in the cellar of his house, probably as an expression of his imminent intention to establish his own production.

Joseph Sankey & Sons of Bilston, near Woverhampton, specialists in steel pressings, commence production of stamped body panels for Arrol-Johnston cars.

Joseph Sankey & Sons develop the first detachable pressed-steel artillery wheel, a considerable improvement over the wooden carriage wheels which most vehicles had used previously.

Louis Coatalen is appointed as chief engineer at Sunbeam and starts to design cars capable of achieving records at Brooklands race track in Surrey.

H.F.S. Morgan builds his first car, a three-wheeler with a twin cylinder 8hp engine, seating for one, tiller steering and patented ‘sliding pillar’ independent front suspension.

Charles Franklin Kettering, having already invented, designed and developed the electric cash register, bank accounting machines and a superior ignition system for cars while working for NCR, sets up Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco). 8000 ignition systems are supplied to Cadillac in his first year of production.

1910
De Dion-Bouton introduces the first "mass-produced" V8 engine in the world.

Automobile production in the Untied States reaches 181,000.

The proposal to place a tax on petrol is rejected by the British Parliament.

Charles Stewart Rolls is killed at the age of 33, when his biplane crashes during a flying competition in Bournemouth.

The RAC devises the horsepower ratings by which cars in Britain are taxed.

Wireless radio is installed in a car with considerable effect although the equipment is very bulky.

Having spent the past 9 years designing cars for deDeutz and Mathis-Hermès, Ettore Bugatti sets up his own factory at Molsheim in the Alsace region (German territory until 1919, French thereafter) and starts production of his ‘Type 11’.

Crossley, Arrol Johnston, Argyll and Isotta Fraschini offer four wheel braking.

1911
Burley Swiss racing driver and talented engineer Louis Chevrolet drives a Buick for Willam Durant in the first Indianapolis 500. A broken camshaft forces early retirement. Louis’s brothers, Arthur and Gaston, are also keen racing drivers.

Having been ousted from General Motors William Durrant hires Louis Chevrolet as a consultant to develop a high quality car and forms the Chevrolet Motor Company.

Ford opens its first factory outside the USA at Trafford Park, Manchester, UK. With an annual output of 3000 Model Ts, Ford soon becomes Britain’s biggest car maker.

Cadillac 20/30hp model comes with ignition, electric lighting and electric self-starting developed by Charles F. Kettering’s Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco).

The Selden Patent Case finally ends in victory for Henry Ford when the car built to Selden’s patent is a technical failure. The patent is found to be ‘valid but not infringed’ releasing Americas car manufacturers to sell their products without further interference from Selden.

1912
Prominent figure S. F. Edge resigns from the Napier company following a dispute. He agrees to stay out of the motor industry for 7 years in exchange for a £160,000.00 pay-off. Instead he turns to pig farming, cattle breeding and film production, all with considerable success.

Delco electric self-starters and electric lighting come as standard on all Cadillac models.

The first Chevrolet, the big, powerful and very expensive Classic Six, reaches production but its price places it well out of reach of the mass market which Durant needs to attract to build his new business.

Sunbeam causes a sensation by simultaneously entering two team of 3 litre cars in French races running at the same time. They come in 1st, 2nd and 3rd in Coupe de l’Auto for touring cars at Dieppe and 3rd, 4th, and 5th in the French Grand Prix against cars with engines of vastly greater cubic capacity. As a result, the virtually identical touring models sell very well.

Brothers W O and H M Bentley buy the London agency for French DFP cars from their employers and call their new business Bentley and Bentley.

1913
Packard achieves a significant step in the development of the differential by introducing the spiral-bevel ring and pinion set. This cuts noise levels dramatically.

Henry Ford trials moving conveyor belt techniques for magneto production.

Ford’s sales rise to 182,809 vehicles.

The Royal Automobile Club awards the Dewar Trophy to Cadillac for a second time, in recognition of the introduction of the electric self-starter and electric lighting.

William Morris introduces his I0hp Morris Oxford light car.

Congress is lobbied by the Lincoln Highway Association who want a transcontinental highway to be constructed across America.

Mechanical direction indicators begin to appear on some models.

Fiat builds 3251cars.

Renault build 9338 cars.

Louis Chevrolet falls out with William Durant, wanting his name to be associated with prestigious cars and resigns. By selling his stock Chevrolet has thrown away the opportunity to become a multi millionaire. Durant continues to grow Chevrolet sales by moving the range downmarket.

W O Bentley develops the aluminium-alloy piston for use in automotive engines and achieves a class record at Brooklands in an alloy-pistoned DFP.

1914
De Dion-Bouton’s V8 engine is now available in 3.5 litre, 4.6 litre and 7.8 litre capacities.

Ford introduces conveyor assembly line techniques to chassis production reducing unit production times from 12½ to 1½ hours.

Ford raises the daily pay of its production workers to an industry record of .

Ettore Bugatti designs and manufactures the world’s first series-produced 16-valve 4 cylinder engine.

British buyers can now choose between 200 makes of car.

The German Army’s advance on Paris is repulsed by troops ferried to the front line in Renault taxis.

W O Bentley is commissioned into the navy to develop aero-engines for the Royal Naval Air Service. The BR1 and BR2 radial engines, built at the Humber factory, prove extremely effective and Bentley passes his knowledge of alloy piston technology on to Ernest Hives who is also developing aero-engines at Rolls-Royce.

Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford set up a small sports-car manufacturing business in West London. Bamford’s early departure leaves Martin with the need for a new name. Success achieved at the Aston-Clinton Hill Climb course in the prototype car provides the ideal name. Aston-Martin is born!

1915
British Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald McKenna introduces a ‘temporary’ 33.33 % levy on luxury imports to contribute to the cost of the war. Commercial vehicles are excluded, as they are needed for the war effort. This levy becomes known as the "McKenna Duties".

Catillac introduces the first successful V8 engine in the United States.

Inspired by Sunbeam aero-engine designs, Packard introduce the Vl2 Twin Six.

Banker Nicola Romeo takes over Anonima Lombardo Fabbrica Automobili of Milan to create Alfa Romeo.

Ford give a .00 refund to every Model T customer in recognition of annual sales exceeding their target.

The British Admiralty Landships Committee, charged with development of an armoured fighting vehicle capable of crossing trenches and barbed wire to attack an enemy, appoint a Lincoln agricultural machinery manufacturers William Foster & Co. Ltd, to design and develop it. For the sake of secrecy the factory workers are told to refer to the project as ‘a water carrier for Mesopotamia’. Their nick-name for the project is still with us today – ‘The tank’.

1916
Windscreen wipers powered by vacuum from the engine’s inlet manifold begin to replace the manual version originally patented by Mary Anderson in 1903. Because inlet manifold vacuum varies with engine speed so does wiper speed.

C F Kettering’s Delco is sold to United Motors Corporation for ,000,000.00.

1917
Herbert Austin receives a knighthood.

Having founded Cadillac and stayed at the helm since the 1909 sale to General Motors, Henry Martyn Leland resigns and leaves with his son Wilfred C Leland, to found the Lincoln Motor Company and build Liberty aero-engines for use in WW1 fighter planes.

Engineer William Rootes is demobilised from the British Armed to set up a new plant at Maidstone, Kent to repair aeroplane engines instead of scrapping them. The war ends before the plant is fully operational.

1918
Emil Jellinek dies.

Car registrations in America exceed five million for the first time.

The Thomas B Jeffery Company is bought by Charles Nash and renamed Nash Motors.

United Motors Corporation is acquired by General Motors. As a result, C F Kettering is invited to organise direct General Motors Research Corporation and insists that its headquarters are established in Dayton.

1919
Andre Citroen, having decided the future lies in simple reliable cars for the mass market, begins production of his Model A.

Henry Ford pays out $l00 million to buy-out all the other stockholders in the Ford Motor Company.

S. F. Edge returns to the British motor industry by taking over AC cars.

The first straight eight production engine is introduced by Isotta Fraschini.

Walter P. Chrysler resigns his position as vice president of General Motors.

New aero influenced post war models introduced by Hispano Suiza, Guy, Enfield Allday.

WO Bentley, awarded an £8,000 gratuity for his wartime work on the design of aero-engines, uses it to establish Bentley Motors Ltd and develop his first sports-car.

Charles F Kettering’s Dayton Metal Products Co. is absorbed into General Motors, forming the core of GM’s new research division.

William and Reginal Rootes re-establish the family car sales business, Rootes Ltd. in Maidstone Kent.

Enzo Ferrari finishes ninth at the Targa Florio bringing him to the notice of Alfa Romeo.

1920
Half of all the motor vehicles in the world are Model T Fords.

The American car industry is hit hard by a sudden post-war sales slump – Most companies struggle, many go out of business and some are absorbed into the larger corporate conglomerates.

The merger of Sunbeam and Talbot-Darracq creates the STD group. The new organisation will fail to rationalise development programmes and share components, missing out on financial opportunities, building cars which compete with each other for market share.

William Durant is ousted from his position at the head of General Motors for a second and final time, when DuPont/Morgan banking interests gain a controlling interest. Alfred P. Sloan is placed in charge of the group’s affairs.

Duesenberg introduce the first production car with a straight eight engine and four-wheel hydraulic brakes.

Work starts on Britain’s first bypass roads, The Great West Road from Chiswick, West London and The Purley Way near Croydon.

350 French companies manufacture cars.

Louis Chevrolet’s Monroe racer wins the Indianapolis 500 with his brother Gaston at the wheel.

Gaston Chevrolet is killed in a racing accident on a boardwalk raceway in Beverly Hills, California.

C F Kettering, inventor and outstanding engineer and head of General Motors Research Corporation becomes a vice-president and GM board member.

Driving a modified Alfa Romeo production car in the Targa Florio, Enzo Ferrari finishes in second place.

1921
Ferodo introduces a dry-plate clutch using asbestos friction materials that do not burn out every few hundred miles.

The Motor Car Act taxes cars in Britain at £I per RAC horsepower. Because of the RAC formula this favours small-bore, long stroke engines used by British manufacturers. Sales of cheaper American imports which tend to use large-bore, short stroke engines are crippled. A Morris Cowley, rated at 11.9hp costs just £12 to tax, whereas a Model T is rated at 22.5hp and costs £23 per year. One variation is that pre 1914 cars pay only half the horsepower. One oddity is a complete exemption for cars used solely for taking servants to church or voters to the polling station!

Bentley Motors Ltd start production of the new Bentley 3 litre sports car at a factory in Cricklewood, London and the three racing Bentleys entered in the Tourist Trophy Race win the team prize.

Lincoln introduce theirV8.

To counteract a drop in sales Morris cuts prices by up to £I00. The ploy works effectively, with sales increasing from 1932 cars in 1920 to 3077 cars this year.

William Durant establishes Durant Motors, having raised million in loans.

Tommy Milton drives a straight-eight Frontenac, designed and built by Louis Chevrolet, to victory at Indianapolis. Two different Louis Chevrolet-developed machines have now won at Indianapolis in consecutive years.

1922
Ford buys financially troubled Lincoln.

In Britain Herbert Austin introduces the Seven.

Clyno begin car production in Wolverhampton.

Marconi begin experiments with wireless receivers in Daimler cars.

Ford produce over one million Model Ts.

Inspired by the strength of a ship’s hull in a storm Vincenzo Lancia devises the first car to feature a sheet metal unitary body structure. The Lancia Lambda also featured a V4 engine with twin overhead camshafts, independent front suspension and brakes on all four wheels.

Trico (USA) introduce electric windscreen wipers as a more speed-consistent alternative to vacuum-driven wipers.

Leslie Hounsfield’s Trojan Ltd of Croydon Licence production of his low-cost 2 stroke, four cylinder car to Leyland Motors.

Charles F. Kettering, (previously responsible for the electric starter) and his assistant T. H. Midgley develop tetraethyl leaded petrol to improve the quality of fuels available in the USA. This alone encourages the development of more powerful and efficient high-compression engines.

21 year old Motor Cycle enthusiast William Lyons meets motorcycle sidecar maker William Walmsley in Blackpool, England. Together they set up the Swallow Sidecar Company.

1923
De Dion-Bouton cease production of their V8 engine range.

Cecil Kimber builds his first MG, a Morris Cowley with flattened springs, a sports body and a rebuilt engine.

Coventry bicycle manufacturer Triumph, builds their first car, the 10/20hp.

Over 2,000,000 Model Ts leave Ford’s production lines.

Sunbeams came 1st, 2nd and 4th in the French Grand Prix.

While racing at the Circuit of Sivocci at Ravenna Enzo Ferrari is approached by Count Enrico and Countess Paolina Baracca, parents of deceased national hero Francesco Baracca. They give Ferrari Francesco’s squadron badge, a prancing horse on a yellow shield.

1924
Former General Motors Vice President, Walter P Chrysler, begins production of his own cars.

Car production times are cut dramatically when DuPont develop quick-drying enamels.

Napier give up the production of cars and concentrate on aero-engines.

The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are removed.

Sunbeam win the Spanish Grand Prix. No other British car will win a Grand Prix in the first half of the 20th century. Twin cam OHV engines become standard on the 3 litre Super Sports models.

Malcolm Campbell achieves an official Land Speed Record d 146mph in an 18 litre 12 cyl Sunbeam developing 350hp.

A Bentley Sport, driven by Sammy Davis and John Benjafield, wins the Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race for the first time.

1925
The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are reinstated and extended to include commercial vehicles.

Morris production of ‘Bullnose’ Oxfords and Cowleys hits 54,131.

Vauxhall Motors at Luton becomes a part of General Motors.

The 250,000th Ford Model T rolls out of Ford’s British factory and begins a celebratory tour.

Rolls Royce introduce the Phantom 1, their first new model since the introduction of the 1906 Silver Ghost.

The Triumph 13/30 becomes Britain’s first family car with hydraulic braking on all four wheels.

Malcolm Campbell raises the official Land Speed Record to 150mph, again in a Sunbeam car.

Sunbeam enters their new 3 litre Super Sports car for the Grand Prix d’Endurance (24 hours) at Le Mans. It is the only British car to finish, winning 2nd place overall and coming first in the 3 litre class. The parent company (The STD Group) takes out a large loan.

General Motors Research Corporation and its boss C F Kettering, move to Detroit.

1926
Cadillac introduce shatter-resistant glass.

Long retired from racing, Louis Chevrolet drives the official pace car for his last laps of Indianapolis Speedway. As a driver he has achieved 10 career Indy car wins and won over 27 major events, making him the most successful of the three racing Chevrolet brothers.

Following a trip to America William Morris is convinced that the future of the car revolves around all-steel construction and works with Edward G Budd to set up the Pressed Steel Company.

In Germany, Daimler Benz AG is formed by the long-planned (since 1911) merger between Benz and Daimler companies.

A 7136cc V12 sleeve valve engine is the main feature of the Coventry Daimler Company’s new Double Six model.

In London, the General Strike and resultant marches bring traffic to a halt.

London’s motorists see electric traffic lights for the first time.

Production of 300 cars a week makes Clyno of Wolverhampton Britain’s third largest car manufacturer.

Packard further refines the differential by introducing hypoid gears, virtually eliminating rear axle whine.

Major Henry Segrave sets a new Land Speed Record of 152mph in a 4 litre 12 cyl Sunbeam.

The Swallow Sidecar Company starts to build special bodies for the Austin Seven and changes its name to the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company. Beyond the Austin seven it also offers coach-built bodies on chassis by Morris, Fiat, Standard, Swift and others.

William and Reginald Rootes move their business from Kent to offices and showrooms at Devonshire House, Picadilly, in the heart of London’s West End. Within a matter of months they have built a network of branches across the UK, in the process, becoming Europe’s largest motor distributing company.

1927
Ford’s Model T comes to the end of the road after 19 years and fifteen million vehicles.

The first British all-steel body is produced by the Pressed Steel Company for the Morris Isis Six, a medium sized saloon.

William Morris acquires the failed Wolseley company.

Chevrolet becomes the top selling manufacturer in America as Ford reorganizes its production facilities for the Model A.

Chromium plating is pioneered by Studebaker and Oldsmobile.

Stanley brings production of its steam cars to an end.

Major Henry Segrave, sets a new World Land Speed Record of over 200mph driving a twin-engined 1000 hp Sunbeam.

1928
By now Britain’s largest car distributors, William and Reginald Rootes begin to acquire manufacturers, starting with Humber, Hillman and Commer.

Dodge is acquired by Chrysler for $I75,000,000.

In the face of fierce price competition from William Moris, Clyno introduce a £I00 8hp model and ‘hits the rocks’.

Cadillac introduces the synchromesh gearbox.

Britain’s first front wheel drive production car is introduced by Alvis.

A Bentley wins the Le Mans 24 Hours driven by Woolf Barnato and Bernard Rubin.

As a result of slumping sales many UK companies are become vulnerable

The Rootes brothers acquire a substantial interest in The Hillman Car Company and then take over Humber Ltd and it’s commercial vehicle brand, Commer.

1929
Karl Benz dies, aged 85.

David Dunbar Buick dies.

US car production reaches 5,337,087, a record that will stand until the I950s.

26.5 million cars are now registered in the USA.

Clyno ceases trading and its assets liquidated.

Armstrong Siddeley offer a Wilson pre-selector gearbox as an option.

Sir Dennistoun Burney, the man behind the development of R100 airship, applies his aerodynamic expertise to car design and starts to make his Burney ‘Streamlines’ at his factory in Maidenhead. Each car features teardrop styling, space-frame construction, rear engine, all-round independent suspension and hydraulic brakes.

Bentley win the Le Mans 24 Hours for the second year in succession with a Speed Six driven by Woolf Barnato and Henry Birkin.

While continuing to work for Alfa Romeo, Enzo Ferrari forms the Scuderia Ferrari, a club/team for gentlemen-racers with the aim of organizing racing for members.

1930
Daimler fit fluid flywheels in conjunction with pre-selector gearboxes to produce semi automatic transmission.

Cadillac introduces a 7.4 litre VI6.

Economic depression causes a fall in car sales.

Henry Royce receives a knighthood.

In the bar of the Old Ship Hotel in Brighton following the annual ‘London to Brighton Run’, three participants decide to form the Veteran Car Club to help its members preserve the veteran and Edwardian cars which form a record motoring’s early history.

The 20mph speed limit, which has been ignored by motorists and police alike for many years, is abolished by the British Parliament.

In Britain, third party insurance becomes compulsory.

Larger Morris cars come with hydraulic brakes.

Walter Wilson introduces the Wilson Preselector gearbox based on a planetary manual transmission system like that used in the Ford Model T.

Bentley wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for the fourth year in succession with a Speed Six driven by Woolf Barnato and Glen Kidston.

1931
The Vauxhall Cadet 2 litre six, is the first car in Europe to feature a synchromesh gearbox.

Bentley Motors goes into liquidation. Napier are interested in buying, but are outbid by Rolls Royce who form Bentley Motors (1931) Limited.

Daimler acquire Lanchester Britain’s oldest motor manufacturer.

The Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company introduces its first cars, the SS1 and SS2. The larger SS1 is based on a modified Standard chassis and Standard six-cylinder engine. The smaller SS2 has a four-cylinder engine.

As the first fruit of the Rootes Group acquisition, Hillman introduces the Wizard with a choice of either 2.1 or 2.8 litre engines. It is not a great sales success.

1932
After years of struggling to survive De Dion-Bouton goes out of business.

Oldsmobile and Packard models feature automatic chokes.

Ford of Britain moves it’s plant and machinery from Trafford Park, Manchester to its new factory at Dagenham on the Eastern outskirts of London over one weekend without losing any production.

Ford design their first car for the European market, the 8hp model Y, in Dearborn.

Ford facelift the Model A and offer it with a mass-produced V8 engine. Sales in the first year exceed 300,000.

Hillman introduces the Minx, small family saloon, which proves to be extremely popular.

1933
William Lyons Changes the name of the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company to SS Cars Limited, taking on the role of managing director.

Ford looses its grip on the American market, dropping to third place behind General Motors and the Chrysler Corporation.

1934
REO introduce the Reo Self-Shifter, actually two transmissions connected in series. The first shifts automatically due to the engagement of a multi-disc centrifugal clutch mechanism. The second transmission is shifted manually to engage a lower gear.

Under both the Chrysler and DeSoto brands Chrysler introduces the revolutionary ‘Airflow’ ‘streamline’ family saloons with aerodynamic unitary sheet-steel body construction and an automatic overdrive.

In Britain a 30mph limit is imposed in built-up areas by Transport Minister Leslie Hore Belisha, pedestrian (Zebra) crossings are introduced, illuminated by a flashing orange (Belisha) beacon and new drivers are required to pass a test.

Morris Motors’ first conveyor assembly line is installed at Cowley and Sir William Morris becomes Baron Nuffield.

General Motors put the successful racecar designer and financial failure, Louis Chevrolet on their payroll in recognition of their use of his name.

Ferdinand Porshe approaches the German Reich government with proposals for a car for the German masses – a Volkswagen. Massive government investment follows.

Construction of the German Autobahn system commences, conceived by Adolph Hitler as a productive way of harnessing the unemployed masses.

British cars are now available with Metallic finishes.

Andre Citroen’s ambition gets the better of him as development of the ‘traction avant’ becomes so expensive that the company is virtually bankrupted. Michelin step in to prop up the business and Citroen looses control.

At SS Cars Limited, William Lyons boosts his company’s technical capabilities with the arrival of renowned engine specialist Harry Weslake. Soon after his arrival overhead valve cylinder heads become available.

1935
The depression of the 1930s means STD Motors are unable to sustain repayments of the large loan taken out in 1925 and are forced into receivership. The Rootes brothers outbid the smaller SS Cars Limited and the proud Sunbeam and Talbot names are destined to become up-market badge-engineered versions of Hillmans.

Ford of Britain introduces a cut price version of the 8hp Model Y saloon to sell at £I00.00.

There are now 35 million motor vehicles on the world’s roads according to an international census.

Triumph offer a screen wash system.

William Heynes joins SS Cars Ltd as chief engineer and the SS Jaguar is announced.

1936
Morgan, specialists in economical three-wheelers since 1909 introduce their first four wheeler, thanks to changes in tax and market readiness for ‘a fourth wheel’.

Fiat introduce the budget-priced 500A, featuring an aerodynamic shape, a ‘570cc engine and a full length sunroof. Its appearance earns it the nick-name ‘Topolino’ (Mickey Mouse) while a 55mph top speed and 55mpg economy makes it very popular, particularly in its home country.

Ferdinand Porsche begins development and construction of prototype ‘Volkswagens’ to demonstrate his concept to Adolf Hitler. The declared intention is that they will sell for £50.00 on a special finance plan.

At SS Cars Limited, William Lyons buys out William Walmsley and anounces the SS 100 and SS Jaguar models.

There are still 45 British car manufacturers.

Fifty-four percent of families in the United States now own a car.

1937
The first London Motor Exhibition is held at Earls Court, rather than Olympia, where it has been since 1905.

Buick and Oldsmobile introduce the Automatic Safety Transmission, using a conventional clutch for engaging forward or reverse and shifting automatically once underway.

800 miles of autobahn have been built in Germany at a cost of £56,000 a mile.

Chrysler perfects the fluid coupling, a major advance towards the fully automatic gearbox, but does nothing with it for the moment.

1938
The Volkswagen goes into production in Nazi Germany.

The British government raises the petrol tax from 8d to 9d per gallon and horsepower tax to £1.25d per hp.

The first small British saloon to feature independent front suspension is the Standard Flying Eight.

Riley is taken over by The Nuffield Group.

Morris launches the Series E 8hp Saloon at £128, the cheapest car in Britain.

As another War begins to look inevitable British car manufacturers are requested to set up Shadow Factories next to small-scale specialists who’s products, in much larger quantities, would be crucial to any war effort.

GM offer the Hydra-Matic hydraulically operated gearbox.

SS Cars Ltd, like many other British manufacturers turns production over to the war effort.

1939
Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany on September 3rd.

The British Government introduces petrol rationing. Petrol is exchanged for coupons allowing each motorist about 200 miles of motoring per month.

There are now two million cars on Britain’s roads.

The customized Lincoln Continental and the lower priced Mercury are introduced by Ford.

Triumph has to cease trading and is put into receivership.

See Timeline 1940 – 2008

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