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< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/7310714@N06/3450140478 "> Wootang01 9.4.09 The trip got here in a timely manner; and the twelve hrs while aboard passed swiftly as well as without case. To be sure, the high quality of the Cathay Pacific service was exemplary when again.

Heathrow advises me of Newark International. The décor comes right out of the clean and sterile 80’s as well as is less an eyesore than a subdued background to the rhythm of human task, such stress, at the fore. There absolutely are faces from all races existing, producing a rich mosaic of humanity which is revitalizing if not entirely rejuvenating after swimming for so lengthy in a sea of Chinese faces in Hong Kong.

Web gain access to is secured in England, it appears. Absolutely nothing is cost-free; whatever is egregiously monetized from the cordless hotspots down to the desktop terminals. I presume Hong Kong has actually ruined me with its bountiful, cost-free access to the info superhighway.

11.4.09 In spite of remaining in a room with five various other backpackers, I have been sleeping well. The bed mattress and cushion are company; my earplugs keep the noise out; and the resting quarters are as dark as a cavern when the lights are out, and also just as bright as, probably, a dreary wet day when on. In conclusion, St. Paul’s is an excellent place to remain for the gregarious, adventurous, as well as penurious city explorer – couchsurfing might be a tenable choice; I’ll test for following time.

Yesterday Connie and I stuffed ourselves at the borough market where there were all kinds of savory, savory victuals. There was most definitely a European flavor to the food fair: simmering sausages were to be discovered almost everywhere; and high as the meat abounded, and also genuine, so were the dairy specials, in the form of myriad rounds of cheese, stacked high behind checkered tabletops. Naturally, we cleaned these delicious nibbles with generous amounts of alcohol that streamed from cups as though brownish-yellow falls. For the very first time I tried mulled wine, which tasted like cozy, rancid fruit punch – the perfect restorative for a drizzling London day, I suppose. We later on eliminated the mid-day at the club, shooting the wind while imbibing a number of diminutive half-pints in the process. Obtaining shattered at 4 in the mid-day doesn’t appear like such a poor point anymore, especially when you are enjoying in the business of good friends; I could much more appreciate why the English do it so a lot!

Previously in the day, we saw the Tate Modern. Its generator room measured up to its prominent invoicing what with a gigantic crawler, full with round egg cavity, securing the retrospective display. The permanent galleries, as well, were a pleasure after which to feast one’s eyes. Picasso, Warhol and Pollock ruled the chambers of the top floors with the items of their supple wrists; and also I ended up coming to be a big fan of cubism, while creating a disdain for abstract art and its superficial pictures, which, I feel, are devoid of both inspiration and feeling.

My initial trip yesterday early morning was to Emirates Stadium, residence of the Collection Gunners. It towers imperiously over the surrounding neighborhood; yet for all its greatness, the area sure was peaceful! Company did select up later on, nonetheless, once the armory shop opened, and dozens of fans came down on it like to a hive. I, also, stroked know a gift-buying objective, as well as wound up purchasing a publication for Godfrey, a headscarf for a student, and also a jacket – on sale, certainly – for excellent step.

I’m sitting in the Westminster Abbey Gallery now, relaxing my fatigued legs as well as burdened back. Thus far, I have actually been verily excited with exactly what I’ve seen, such a confluence of elegance and also background prior to me that it would require days to absorb everything, when regretfully I can spare only a couple of hours. My preferred component of the abbey is the poets catch where no less a literary star than Samuel Johnson rests in peace – his breast validates his comfortable visibility, which was so clearly captured in his bio.

For lunch I had a steak and also ale pie, served with mash, taken along with a Guinness, additional cold – 2 degrees centigrade colder, the bartender explained. It decreased well, like all the other scrumptious dishes I’ve had in England; and no question now I have expanded familiar with intemperance at half past two. Besides, Liverpool were playing inspired football against Blackburn; and also my lunch was full.

Having had my fill of football, I determined to avoid my ticket scalping endeavor at Stamford Bridge as well as instead roamed over to the British Museum to evaluate their substantial collections. Along the road, my eye caught a cinema, its doors vast open as well as confessing customers. With much rapidity, I subsequently checked the program times, saw that an efficiency was readied to begin, and finally hurried to the box workplace to buy a discounted ticket – if you call a 40 pound ticket an offer, that is. That’s exactly how I got hold of a seat to see Hairspray in the West End.

The program deserved forty extra pounds. The songs was addicting; and also the phase design as well as effects were not so much gaudy as wonderfully promoting – the pulsating history lights went to when scintillating and passing through. The actors too were lively, exuding charisma while they danced and delivered lines trickling in wit. Hairspray is a top quality manufacturing as well as most definitely recommended.

12.4.09 At breakfast I rested across from a male that asked me to which nation Hong Kong had actually been returned – China or Japan. That was pretty funny. Then he began spewing on my food as he spoke, completely oblivious to my morning meal coming to be the receptacle in which the fruit of his inner churl was being positioned. I presume I comprehend the convention nowadays of covering one’s mouth whilst talking and masticating at the exact same time!

We in fact chatted on London life in general, and I praised London for its racial assimilation, the act of which is a prodigious jump of confidence for any culture, attempting to be comprehensive, accepting all type of people. It wasn’t as though the Brits were attempting in vain to be all points to all guys, using Spanish with the visitors from Spain, German with the Germans as well as, even, Hindi with the Indians, no matter of whether or not Hindi was their indigenous language; not even considering the silly concept of urging the international fostering of their language; consequently completely maintaining English in English hands as well as allowing its honored polyglots to “” practice” their languages. Certainly, the effort of the Londoners to make use themselves of the rich mosaic of ethnic knowledge, as well as to look for an usual understanding with an ubiquitous English accent is a prototype, as well as the bedrock for any kind of world city.

I celebrated Jesus’ rebirth at the St. Andrew’s Street Church in Cambridge. The of this Baptist church were warm as well as gracious, as well as I met several of them, including one seeing (Halliday) linguistics scholar from Zhongshan college in Guangzhou, who as a matter of fact had actually seen my tiny City University of Hong Kong in 2003. The service itself was much more traditional and also the believers fewer in number compared to the “” dynamic” services at any of the charming, evangelical churches in HK; yet that’s just what makes this part of the body of Christ one-of-a-kind; besides, the message was as brief as a powerpoint slide, as well as interesting no much less; the power word which talked right into my life being a concern from John 21:22- just what is that to you? Big trees; exquisite lawns; as well as old, sharp universities; that’s Cambridge essentially. Resting here, drinking on a half-pint of Woodforde’s Wherry, I’ve had a leisurely, if not languorous, day thus far; my single responsibility containing walking around while soaking up the green environment as though a sponge, electronic camera in tow. I am back at the sublime beer, relishing a pint of Sharp’s DoomBar before my fish and chips show up; the legal age is 18, however any person whose visage even hints of younger luster is most likely to obtain carded these days, the bartender informed me. The youth alcohol consumption society here is almost as twisted as the college alcohol consumption society in America. My keep in Cambridge, relaxing as well as desultory maybe, will end hereafter late lunch. I a not exactly sure if there is anything entrusted to see, conserve for the American graveyard which rests an impossible 2 miles away. I have had a remarkable time in this community; and also am glad for the accessibility into its living background- the locals right here have to demonstrate amazing persistence as well as tolerance what with numerous visitors ambling on the streets, peering -and also photographing- right into every nook and cranny. 13.4.09 There are no rubbish bins, yet I have actually seen on the streets many combined race couples in

which the
guys have a tendency to be white- the women likewise belonging to a light colored ethnic culture, normally some kind of Oriental; too saw some black men and also Indian guys with white chicks. Individuals right here hold doors, even at the entry to the commode. Sometimes it looks like though they are chancing

, simply waiting for the one that will certainly take the obligation for the door from them, at which point I rush out to alleviate them of such an arbitrary concern. I went to the British Museum this morning. Both hrs I spent there did neither myself neither the exhibitions any justice because there
actually is also much to study, enough exciting things to last an entire day, I assume. The bottomless well of artefacts from antiquity, attracting from resources as varied as Korea, and Mesopotamia, is a credit rating to the British empire, without whose looting the majority of this fantastic booty would certainly be inaccessible for our purview; far better, I think, for these priceless treasures to be available to all in the grandest supermarket of history than away from human eyes, and also worst yet, in the hands of dishonest collectors or in the rubbish container, possibly. Irene and I took in the ballet Giselle at The Royal Music hall in the afternoon. The building is a deluxe wonder, and a testament to this city’s love for the arts. The ballet itself was satisfying, the very first fifty percent transcending to the second, where the active dancers demonstrated their incredible mastery in, of all places, a graveyard covered in a cape of smoke and darkness. I admit, their dance of the dead, in such a dismal necropolis, did strike me as, weird. 2 friendly women from Kent persuaded me to visit their home town tomorrow, where, they informed me, the authentic, “working

” Leeds Castle and also the mighty fascinating house of Charles Darwin await. I’m taking care of a pint of Environment-friendly King Ruddles and also questioning concerning “the abundance of British ales and also lagers; the British have actually done a fantastic deed for the world by producing an interminable line of low-alcohol session beers that could be taken pleasure in at morning meal, lunch, tea and also dinner; and also their disservice is this: besides this endless supply of affordable beer ensnaring my internal alcoholic, I feel myself placing on my freshman fifteen, nearly ten years after the truth; I am going to have to run a little bit harder back in Hong Kong if I wish to shed all this malty gas off. Irene suggested I stop by the National Art Gallery considering that we remained in the location; as well as it was an hour well spent. The gallery presently provides a special exhibit on Picasso, the non-ticketed section which features a number of sexy renderings, consisting of David snooping on Bathsheba -repeated in clever versions- as well as parodies of various other masters’ jobs. Moreover, the main gallery houses two incredible portraits by Joshua Reynolds, that occurs to be favorite of mine, he in life being a buddy of Samuel Johnson- I went by Boswells, where its name first fulfilled Johnson, on my means to the music hall. 14.4.09 I hoped last evening, as well as underwent my list, lifting every person on it approximately the Lord. That really felt good; that God is active currently, and also ever before existing in my life as well as in the lives of my brothers as well as sisters.

Doubtless, then, I have actually really felt quite wistful, as though a specter in the land of the living, remaining in an area where religious fervor, it appears, is a thing of the past, a trifling

for many, to be hidden away in the nontransparent corners of centuries-old basilicas that are much more expensive traveler locations compared to liberating houses of praise nowadays. Certainly, I have yet to see anyone pray, outside of the Easter service which I went to in Cambridge- for such an overjoyed minute in verily a grand church, would you believe that it was just participated in by at most 3 dozen spirited ones. The people of England, as well as Europe generally, have, it is my hope, only secured away words, delegating it to the peaceful vault of their hearts. May it be gotten in the unexpected time out before nourishments and also in the still crisp early mornings and awesome, silent nights. There is still really hope for a revival in this location, for belief to climb like that remarkable sunlight every early morning. God would certainly love to rescue them, to supply them in this day, it is specific. I question just what Londoners think, if anything at all, concerning their authorities state which, like a creeping plant in the shadows, has taken root in all edges of every day life, from the terrorist notifications in the underground, which beg Londoners to report all points dubious, to both of dogs which excitedly walk with Euston. Exactly what makes this the more extraordinary is the fact that even the USA, the unbeatable nemesis of the recently established, rebel order, does not risk bombard its citizens with such fear mongering nowadays, particularly with Obama in workplace; perhaps we’ve grown smart in these previous few years to the suspicious returns of giving up civil liberties to the state, of having our bags inspected almost everywhere- London Eye; Hairspray; as well as The Royal Opera House check bags in London while the museums do not; somehow, that doesn’t build up for me. I remain in a stunning bookshop on New Road in Birmingham, and also absolutely to verify my uncertainties, there are just as lots of publications on the death of Christianity in Britain as there are publications which attempt to murder Christianity everywhere. I did locate, nevertheless, a nice biography on John Wesley by Roy Hattersley and also The Screwtape Letters by C.S. Lewis. I might select up the previous. Lunch with Sally was positive as well as mirthful. We dined at a French restaurant neighboring New Street -yes, Birmingham is a cultural capitol! Sally as well as I both attempted their omelette, while her partner had the fish, without chips. Conversation was light, the levity existed as well as so was our thinking back

regarding those short lived minutes throughout our very first year in Hong Kong; it is outstanding just how friendships can return to so all of a sudden with a smile. On their recommendation, I am on my way to Warwick Castle -they also suggested that I visit Cadbury Globe, however they can not handle extra visitors currently, the tourist office team notified me, much to my dissatisfaction! Seeing Warwick Castle really produced a terrific day out. The castle, parts of which were established by William the Conquerer in 1068, is as much a garish vacationer catch as a thorough conservation of history, at times a sillier variation of Ocean Park while at others a dignified devotion to a most remarkable
, necessarily English past. The castle accommodates all visitors; as well as not remarkably, that which delighted all target markets was a large trebuchet siege engine, which for the 5 p.m. performance tossed a fireball high as well as far into the air- fantastic! Taliban beware! 15.4.09 I’m leaving on a jet aircraft this evening; aren’t sure when I’ll be back in England again. I’ll miss this eccentric, yet charming location; as well as that I will miss out on Irene and Tom that so generously welcomed me right into their house, fed me, and also endured my use their bathroom as well as shower goes without saying. I’m happy for God’s lots of blessings on this trip. On the schedule today

is a journey to John Wesley’s home, followed by a check out to the Imperial War Museum. Currently today I got a tube of Oilatum, a week late probably, which Teri suggested I use to treat this obstinate, dermal weak point of mine- I enjoy to report that my skin has actually quit sobbing. John Wesley’s home lives

as well as well. Providers are still held in the church everyday; and its crypt, so much from being a cellar for the dead, is an intense, roomy gallery in which all things Wesley get on screen -I never ever realized how much of a renowned number he became in England; at the height of this idol frenzy, paradoxical by itself, he must have been as popular as the Beatles went to their pinnacle. Your house itself is a multi-story erection with narrow, sheer staircases and roomy rooms enhanced in an 18th century fashion. I discovered Samuel Johnson’s house within a puzzle of red brick concealed alongside Fleet Street. To be in the home of the guy that composed the English thesaurus, and whose tireless love for unknown words became the motivation for my very own lexical fixation, this, by much, is the orgasm of my browse through to England! The most effective certainly has actually been saved for last. There are a wide range of pictures hanging around your home like ornaments on a tree. Every likeness has its own story, carefully retold on the crib sheets in each area. Celebrities are plentiful, including David Garrick and Sir Joshua Reynolds, who painted several of the finer photos in the residence. I have developed a certain affinity for Oliver Jeweler, of which Boswell composes,” His individual was
short, his sanction coarse as well as off-color, his deportment that of a scholar awkwardly influencing the very easy gentleman. It appears as though I, as well, might use a much more flattering description of myself! I regretfully couldn’t quit to attempt the curry in England; I think the CityU canteen’s take on the meal will need to do. I did, however, have the suitable job of flirting with the adorable Cathay Pacific respond to team that examined me in. She was lovely in red, light powder on her cheeks, with real diamond jewelries, she claimed; and her tiny, fragile face, commanded by a posh British accent made her positively alluring, impressive. Not just did

she grant me an aisle seat but she had the gumption to return my fawning with passion; she has to be a pro at this by currently. I saw her once more as she was pulling double-duty, collecting tickets prior to boarding. She remembered my pursuit for curry; and also in the fog of infatuation, where nary a male has been made, I stumbled my words like the careless child that has actually had excessive strike. I am just an amateur, alas, an” Oliver Goldsmith” with the ladies- I got no video game- booyah! Some last, consequential little bits: as a result of the chavs, Burberry no more offers those fashionable baseball caps; as a result of the IRA, rubbish containers are no more an asset on the roads of London, and because of this, the streets and the Underground of the city are a dirtied mess; as well as because of other terrorists from distant, a lot more arid lands, experiencing a Western airport has handled the routine of perfunctory procedure that does not “make me really feel any more secure from my undetectable adversaries. Finally, I saw a lot of Indians working at Heathrow that I can have quickly mistaken the place for Mumbai. Their existence stunned me because their part of the general populace surely must be much less compared to their portion of Heathrow team, suggesting some strange hiring bias. No matter, they do an outstanding work with brief flight terminal checks, as well as generally are absurdly amusing and also witty when not thoughtless. That’s all for England! Bad Credit report?< img alt= "negative credit rating bank card" src= "https://farm4.staticflickr.com/3327/5792929304_430ca048f5.jpg "size=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href =" http://www.flickr.com/photos/53500715@N08/5792929304" > natloans Debt card-financial background

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memories of the Eighties!
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I started with the 1960s and the 1970s and continue with the 80s.

God it all comes rushing back! I thought it was all just a bad dream!. (A sure sign of the ageing process)

It was a time when Don McClean’s version of Roy Orbison’s ‘Crying’ sat atop the singles chart, its glum chorus summing up a country struggling to emerge from the late-70s doldrums.

GDP had dropped by -1.8 per cent while unemployment, at 5.8 per cent or 1.56million, was still some 0.3 per cent or 360,000 short of today’s more painful figure.

While Britons got by on an average wage of £6,000 (the equivalent of about £19,000 today), petrol cost 28p a litre (90p), a pint of beer was 35p (£1.10), a loaf of bread 33p (£1.10) and a pint of milk 17p (54p).

At the month’s end, the pre-decimal sixpence was withdrawn from circulation. Later that summer, Alexandra Palace in London was part-destroyed by fire.

The British Olympics team returned from Moscow with a medal haul – including five golds – that left them ninth in the table, below Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. The USSR finished top with 80 golds.

Earlier in the year, the first episode of Yes, Minister had been broadcast by the BBC and SAS officers ended a hostage crisis by storming the Iranian Embassy in London, killing five terrorists and free all the captives.

Political events were to prove emblematic of the coming decade. In June it was announed that nuclear weapons were to be stored at RAF Greenham Common, prompting years of protests from the CND.

The 1980s set the mould for Britain today!.

It was the decade of Thatcher, yuppies and big phones.

In October, amid murmurs that she would be forced to make a U-turn in her economic policies, Margaret Thatcher, the prime minister, told the Conservative Party conference: "You turn if you want to. The lady’s not for turning."

In November, Ronald Reagan, the Republican former actor and Governor of California was elected US president, defeating by a landslide Jimmy Carter, who had presided over a sharp economic decline.

Back in Britain, after the resignation of Jim Callaghan, Labour elected the left-winger Michael Foot as leader, opening a generation of in-fighting that would see them fail to retake power for another 17 years.

In sport, while England failed to progress past the group stages of the European football championships in Italy, there were also then-unknown reasons for long-term optimism: future stars Steven Gerrard, John Terry and Ashley Cole were all born during the year.

Meanwhile, the assassination in December of John Lennon outside his New York apartment building capped a year of terrible losses to British arts. Among others who died were the film-maker Sir Alfred Hitchcock, the photographer Sir Cecil Beaton, the actors Peter Sellers and Hattie Jacques, and the musician Ian Curtis.

But for many of you reading this, it was all about BMX bikes, big hair, bright socks and New Romantics.

I remember the 80s as a consumerist paradise with massive phones, filofaxes and flash suits. There were also downsides outside of London, with riots and unemployment but to be honest the UK was rightfully feasting on Jambon at the table of European Commercialism and Progress.

Thank God I was an adult (in age anyway) in the 80s!

Being born in 1949 and then growing up during the 50s, 60s and 70s I found the 80’s a huge disappointment!

In the 60s we had free love, drugs, wild new music, in the 70s Glam and Punk rock, more free love, fun clothes.

But just as you were getting old enough to enjoy yourself without parental supervision! The 80s gave us Thatcherism, Aids, poncey poodle fashions and the most celebrated music star – Boy George telling us ‘War, War is stupid…’

It was the decade of spend, spend, spend, for some of 80s Britain.

The Cold War

A poll conducted in 1980 found 40 per cent of adults said they believed a nuclear war was likely in the next 10 years.

Yes deep insecurities were being sown in people’s minds as tensions between East and West heightened.

In the early 80s there was an intense awareness of the Cold War. Every move of the Kremlin was watched by the media at the time, should some crisis in Central America or the Middle East ignite World War Three.

Ronald Reagan was the president, talking of the evil empire, and spending huge sums on the military. Cruise missiles were being delivered to Greenham Common and Molesworth to much protest at the time.

As an adult now, you can appreciate the doctrine of "outspending, outperforming" the communist bloc which in the end hastened its demise. But at the time, watching the Soviet soldiers marching through Red Square in front of Brezhnev, you did wonder what might happen.

The nuclear threat was addressed in pop music with Nena’s 99 Red Balloons and Frankie Goes to Hollywood’s Two Tribes, on television with The Day After and Threads and in films such as Defence of the Realm and WarGames.

Britain busy being born

The Eighties were more subtle and significant: there would be no Katie Price without Samantha Fox, no Lady Gaga without Madonna, no Simon Cowell without Stock, Aitken and Waterman and no David Cameron without Margaret Thatcher.

The Eighties marked the death of one Britain and they hinted at another Britain busy being born.

The Eighties can appear endearingly unfamiliar. What did we do with our hands when we didn’t have smart phones? How did we waste time before Twitter?

Britain in turmoil

There was massive unemployment, whole of Britain in turmoil under thatcher, lads like me off to a phony war for political gain, and criminals like Archer and Maxwell running riot with Justice…I lost some respect I had for the police in the 1980s, following their handling of the 1984-85 miners’ strike.

It struck me that they were quite happy to stand back and watch football hooligans run riot on match days, for example (a genuine disturbance of the peace issue), but were overly keen to viciously truncheon miners and charge them with horses as and when required (a legal dispute between employees and employers).

The police should only be used to enforce the law and not be used to implement a political agenda (in this case, Thatcher’s destruction of our coal mining industry).

I remember huddling around a small battery-operated black and white TV by candlelight through yet another electricity strike, watching news reports of rats collecting around piles of uncollected rubbish in the streets.

Everyone lived at the mercy of the trade unions, employers could not remove lazy workers, and British manufactured goods, famous for their poor quality, were a worldwide joke.

The rise of capitalism, the inner city riots, rise of city yuppies and estate agents, we eventually saw the dark side of capitalism, where money, greed and power became more important than anything else. The eventual collapse of the banking system was the inevitable result of an economy reliant on money which did not actually exist.

From the miners’ strike, the Falklands War and the spectre of AIDS, to Yes Minister, championship snooker and Boy George.

Falklands War, the Miners’ Strike and the Brixton riots, as well as those reflecting on industry in the 1980s, unemployment and redundancy, and HIV and Aids.

Britain changed more in the 1980s than in almost any recent decade. The rise of the City and the fall of the unions, the wider retreat of the left and the return of military confidence, the energy of a renewed entrepreneurialism and the entropy of a new, entrenched unemployment.

The 1980s, destined to become the darkest decade for English football, opened with a portent of things to come when England travelled to the European Championships in Italy.

The rioting on the terraces during that tournament was a sight that was to become commonplace whenever the national team travelled abroad in the ensuing years.

You name a European city and it will have experienced so-called England fans terrorising stadiums or rampaging through the streets and squares.

It is good on music, showing how music evolved from political protest songs by the Specials and UB40 in the early 80’s, through to Live Aid in 1985 and then to Stock, Aitkin and Waterman whose musical production line with songs by the likes of Kylie and Rick Astley dominated the last few years of the decade.

Any memeories of Britain in the 1980s must inevitably revolve around the former Conservative Prime Minister and Thatcherism.

The Thatcher years

Yet Thatcherism was the bell-ringing herald of an age of unparalleled consumption, credit, show-off wealth, quick bucks and sexual libertinism. When you free people, you can never be sure what you are freeing them for.

Ted Heath had fought and lost an election on the question of ‘who governs?’ in the 1970s; and Thatcher was determined history would not repeat itself. Those on the right will regard her as a heroic figure that dragged Britain kicking and screaming into the modern age.

"Thatcher the milk snatcher" had the reins – and there was a sad anticipation that things were not going to get better.

Elected just after the industrial unrest of the "Winter of Discontent", she embarked on a tough reform programme with the top priorities of tackling inflation and the unions.

The Eighties did not begin on January 1 1980; they began on May 4 1979 with the arrival of Margaret Thatcher in Downing Street.

Queen Elizabeth may have reigned but it was Thatcher who ruled the Eighties

She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist called her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.

She was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979. Arriving at 10 Downing Street, she said, in a paraphrase of the prayer Make Me an Instrument of Your Peace:

"Where there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope".

Falklands War

The defining event of her premiership was the conflict over the Falkland Islands. In many respects the Falklands War was a bizarre conflict: as Ronald Reagan was moving towards promulgating a missile defence system that would involve space-based interceptor missiles, Britain found itself embroiled in a conflict ‘whose origins owed more to the preoccupations of the nineteenth century … in that it was about the ownership of territory’

The weapons that both sides used were by and large still those of the Second World War; and newspapers were the most immediate means for the public to gain information about the conflict.

The ‘last of the good-old fashioned wars’; a throwback to the days before humans became so good at killing each other that conflict now potential involved the destruction of the entire planet. And ultimately, the conflict was a more close-run thing than popular memory allows. It should also be noted that some people claim that reports of a ceasefire in the Falklands conflict began to emerge during the 1982 World Cup final. This is highly unlikely, given that the ceasefire was signed on 14 June and the World Cup final took place on 11 July.

Although it undoubtedly played its part, victory in the Falklands War was not entirely responsible for Thatcher’s re-election in 1983. Opinion polls suggest the tide had begun to turn at the start of 1982, with the unemployment rate still growing – but more slowly – and the economy beginning to turn around. That said, the Falklands transformed Thatcher from a unreliable quantity into the Tories prime electoral asset. In contrast, opposition leader Michael Foot attracted large amounts of derision, with one Times columnist describing him as the sort of man ‘unable to blow his nose in public without his trousers falling down’

Meanwhile the novelty of the SDP had quickly worn off after its formation in the early 1980s – there was now no need for ‘for the media to dispatch a camera team every time Shirley Williams stepped deftly from a railway carriage onto a station platform’

Thatcher’s Children

But many of you were oblivious to the political drama and the social changes sweeping Britain because you were growing up.

The Eighties. What do you remember?

See below for childhood memories in the 80s.

BMX bikes, Rent-a-Ghost and ZX Spectrum computers were more important.

Digital watches that were usually made by Casio, and which sometimes doubled as calculators.

Gordon the Gopher (and the Broom Cupboard) Phillip Schofield’s adorable squeaking sidekick

Back to the Future or anything involving Michael J Fox

Ghostbusters

Heavy Metal

Wham! George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley (aided and abetted by Pepsi and Shirley) sold 25 million records worldwide between 1982 and 1986. A similar number of British market stalls sold knock-off ‘Choose Life’ T-shirts.

Sun-In The best thing to happen to ’80s hair along with the perm, Sun-In turned your barnet blonde (or more likely, orange) in an instant.

Arcade/computer games Pac-Man, Frogger, Donkey Kong, Pole Position… If you weren’t playing them at home, you were playing them down the arcade. Pocket money was never spent so quickly.

The Young Ones Even if we were too young to understand all the jokes (especially the rude ones), ‘The Young Ones’ was an unforgettable – and incredibly quotable – comedy feast for us ’80s kids.

Torvill And Dean Bolero. Mack and Mabel. And here, Barnum. Suddenly, ice skating wasn’t just a sport but a moving, musical spectacle.

PEZ sweet dispensers Dispensing little tiny fizzy sweets was never so much fun!

Sinclair Spectrum.

Commodore 64.

Madonna She chewed gum, snogged boys and showed her bra – all while singing and dancing. We British children had never seen the likes of it, and were forever changed.

Transformers Transformers – more than meets the eye! Transformers – robots in disguise! And so on.

Slush Puppies The best way to get brain freeze as a child in the ’80s.

Grange Hill In the ’80s, British children liked nothing more than coming home from school to watch a show about children at school. Which was perfectly understandable, because that show was ‘Grange Hill’.

Bucks Fizz They won the Eurovision Song Contest in 1981 with an audacious display of catchy pop, fluffy hair and skirt-losing. And lo! British kids had four new pop heroes.

Neighbours A must-watch for British schoolchildren at lunchtime, after school, or both.

Duran Duran Did we know what they were singing about? No. Did we care? No. They had great tunes, and ever greater hair.

The Sony Walkman Which enabled us to listen to Duran Duran everywhere. Hoorah!

John Hughes’ movies Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Pretty In Pink, The Breakfast Club… Hughes’ movies weren’t just relatable, they were a slice of cool American escapism.

He-Man …and the masters of the universe, of course. "By the power of Greyskull!"

Five Star "Britain’s answer to The Jackson Five" weren’t really that. But they were fine purveyors of kid-friendly bubblegum pop and shoulder pads.

BMX bikes What the Chopper was to the ’70s, so the BMX was to the ’80s. Especially after we all saw ‘E.T.’

The Adventure Game The same tasks each week, yet never a moment of dullness? It had to be the delightful, Douglas Adams-esque ‘The Adventure Game’.

Trivial Pursuit At last! British families had another board game to play apart from Monopoly. And it really sorted out the smart people from the, erm, people who regularly got stuck on blue Geography questions, ie everyone.

Breakdancing As popularised in the movie ‘Breakdance: The Movie’ and attempted, badly, by children at school discos throughout Britain.

Dangermouse!

The Royal Wedding/Princess Diana British girls now had a pretty princess to coo over, British boys now had a member of the royal family they could actually fancy, and British kids everywhere got a day off school. Hoorah!

Saturday Superstore The tradition started by ‘Multi-Coloured Swap Shop’ continued with ‘Saturday Superstore’, which ran from 1982 to 1987 and was hosted by Mike Read (he of the colourful glasses), Sarah Greene (she of the hair scrunchies) and Keith Chegwin (he of the annoying laugh).

Culture Club "Is it a boy? Is it a girl?" No sooner had Boy George confused British kids with his androgyny than he’d swept them off their feet with a string of catchy hits. Marvellous.

The Rubik’s Cube There was only one question on kids’ lips in the ’80s. And that was: "Can you do it?"

Now That’s What I Call Music… The best music compilation albums ever? Back then – when they were being sold to us by a pig voiced by Brian Glover – most certainly, yes.

Fame The ‘Glee’ of the ’80s. Hands up who didn’t dream of flying to New York, auditioning for the High School Of Performing Arts and dancing on top of a yellow taxi? We know we did.

Acne, puberty, A-Team, Night Rider, Young Ones, Only Fools & Horses, Miami Vice, XR3i and the Lamborghini Countach.

Wham, many young girls were so in love with George Michael. All that lusting, then you find out he’s gay!. Remember the "lewd act" in a public lavatory!.

The A-Team and Mr T

Michael Jackson and the huge anticipation around the release of the Thriller video. The album probably remains the best selling of all time.

Airwolf

Street Hawk

Waca-Day & Timmy Mallett

10p sweetie mix-ups

Liverpool FC & John Barnes/Ian Rush

Wimpy burgers

Atari consoles & Space Invaders

Thriller & the moonwalk

Roland Rat

Campri ski-jackets

Robin Of Sherwood

Hoddle & Waddle

Tea-bags

Different Strokes

‘VW’ badges

Newcastle FC/Brazil pom-pom hats

The Karate Kid

Mexico 86 & Gary Lineker’s wrist bandage

Music was loud and often involved electric pianos the size of Wales.

TVs were multiplying as well as getting bigger

Top loading video recorders and huge microwave ovens appeared whilst trim phones disappeared.

Monster record players started to shrink and CD players started to grow.

Home computers spread like wildfire

Work computers often filled entire rooms but started to shrink.

Cars still fell apart (unless Japanese or German) but started getting demographically faster with 205 and Golf GTi, more valves and the occasional turbo. Diesels still smelt and were usually lorries. People started to forget what a choke was, and only owned a 4×4 if they had a field or hillside to drive it over.

Pizza was suddenly the "in" food. Of course in the early days it was usually your typical frozen ones. They were great for dinner during school holidays, a real change to boring sandwiches.

Rubik cubes, the rise of 1980s hair. LA Hair Metal and the death of Punk, the original Live Aid concert. Big shoulder pads, thanks to Dallas – which also started the "I Shot JR". BMXs, cassettes and LPs were still on the go. Boy George and Adam Ant doing the "Prince Charming"

Sinclair Spectrum computers, Commodore 64s and Amstrad 1640, BBC Computers and Acorns and the rise of the Apple Mac. Pretty in Pink, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, the conclusion of the Indiana Jones trilogy, Back to the Future and Gremlins.

The series finale of M*A*S*H and such classics Dallas and Cheers.

Ray Ban sunglasses. The must-have designer labels on clothes. The "I must have MTV". The Michael Jackson and his groin-grabbing routines. The Madonna and her controversial music videos.

Seeing ET in the cinema and crying at the end!

Being madly in love with Simon le Bon and wanting to be like Madonna, riding around on a battered BMX, watching Live Aid on telly, Marathons in a selection box every Xmas, drinking Quantro and trying to get drunk on Top Deck. Being a teenager when the second summer of love happened in 89…Happy days!!

Ra-ra skirts, po-go sticks, Dallas, Tenko, Soda-stream, Wagon wheels and the slipper at school!

The Smiths

…ah, Heaven…80’s weren’t bad after all!.

More memories of the 80s

Being worried about getting Aids from banknotes; trying to persuade dad to build a nuclear bunker; and Jimmy Knapp the hero of London commuters who stopped us being able to get to work during the summer of 1988 and 1989!

Ah, the thawing of Cold War. The collapse of communism in Europe. The intifada in Israel and its disputed territories. The revolving door of Soviet Union leaders spinning faster than ever. The stock market crash of 1987.

Coal. Snow. Cold winters in the south. No radiators. Hair gel and shellsuits. White socks, white trainers and Run DMC style wearing the tongues out of the laces. Multicoloured luminous and mismatched socks and Bruce Lee Kung Fu slippers. Betamax and VHS. Madness and The Young Ones.

Women could wear fur coats without the Anti brigade being very hypocritical, ie wearing leather and saying fur was bad! Choppers (bicycles)! Huge Video Cameras, even bigger phones, shiny suits and cool cars.

More bits of plastic in the wallet. In turn followed by interest rate hikes, less work, negative equity.

Memories of a phone box as the privatisation improved telecoms beyond recognition. Shops no longer closed Wednesday afternoon, and power cuts caused by strikes.

The music and popular culture of that decade (especially the New Romantic early 80s) made such a vivid contrast with the nihilism of the late 70s punk era. Boys started wearing pastel pink and yellow and still looked cool (in spite of the mullet hairstyles).

The North/South divide was at its height in the 80s.

The age that made cocaine, political and financial incompetence, nepotism and tasteless extravagance acceptable.

Flying a Union jack when the Falklands War started.

Miners Strike going on forever, Cruise Missiles and strikes at News International.

The fear of nuclear annihilation being a topic for normal conversation at work.

The Smiths, Billy Bragg, the first truly successful global political campaign, the anti apartheid movement and a generation of dedicated and hard-working young people opposed to the wanton greed of Thatcherism and ‘Thatcher’s Children’.

Boys from the Blackstuff. The dole and a wee bar job on the side. And yes I had a filofax, a Marxism Today filofax, if you will.

The miner’s strike – the one thing that galvanised the left (briefly) and polarised the nation. It was Thatcher v Scargill – there could’ve been a solution but neither protagonist was really looking for solutions for the people in mining communities.

Being young and coming to terms with sex in a post-Aids society.

Nokia Mobira phone and it was £25 per month and 25 pence per minute outside the M25 and 50 pence per minute inside the m25! Why, I have no idea!

Mobile phones, I was considered quite sophisticated by having my own BT Phonecard to ring home; CDs, we were still all vinyl and tapes.

The appeal of going to the cinema faltered in the 80s when the VCR became widely available. However they weren’t cheap. I remember buying my first one in 1982, it cost £280 – compare that to what they cost now (if you can still find any on the High St). And the cost of pre-recorded films were even higher, I remember ET coming out, I think it was £84 to buy a copy – so everyone hired it from the video hire shop.

Rotten, nasty self-centred right-wing government. Cynically high unemployment. Pretty grim for the common man, woman and child.

Television

At the start of the Eighties there were three television channels, all terrestrial. MTV was launched in 1981 and Sky started broadcasting in 1989. The seeds of the TV explosion that would change our viewing were sown in the Eighties but it was the last decade of the truly national shared television experience. It isn’t the 28 million who watched the 1981 royal wedding that astonishes, it’s the 19 million who tuned in to Blankety Blank. It’s hard, too, to believe I spent my Saturday afternoons watching a fat old man in a shiny Union flag leotard chase a paunchy fellow dressed as a samurai inside a wrestling ring.

Since there were so few channels, sporting occasions were also national cultural events: Ian Botham’s 1981 Ashes, the 1985 world snooker final between Denis Taylor and Steve Davies. That match, now known as the “Black Ball Final”, was watched by more than 18 million who tuned in over the weekend of April 27-28, 1985. Less than three months later 1.9 billion people across 150 countries watched Live Aid, arguably the defining cultural event of the Eighties. Looking at the list of artists who appeared on stage in London and Philadelphia, I was reminded that the Eighties was the last decade of the truly global superstar: artists like Madonna and U2, plus Michael Jackson and Bruce Springsteen – who both sang on We Are the World but did not appear at Live Aid – were cultural colossi who transcended musical genres.

The other key cultural moment occurred three years after Live Aid with the Second Summer of Love and the rise of acid house and the use of ecstasy among the young. The Eighties began with teenagers sniffing glue and ended with them taking E.

In the absence of downloads we had to go to the cinema to watch films. And it was a time of action heroes who were brawn in the USA: Stallone, Schwarzenegger and Willis boxing, terminating and blasting their way through the decade. It was also the age of the video nasty – films with lurid titles such as I Spit on Your Grave.

It was the Rushdie novel, published in 1988, that was to offer a glimpse of an uglier future Britain. The protests that erupted after the release of The Satanic Verses were the first indication of a religious militancy among some British Muslims that would put the benign assumptions of multiculturalism under severe pressure.

Cultural consumption revealed a similar fracturing, as the computer rivalled the television and the CD as sources of entertainment. The first Sinclair home computers went on sale in 1980. Then at the end of the decade, in 1989, a British scientist, Timothy Berners-Lee, wrote a proposal to create a means for scientists to exchange information by computer.

His title for this invention was the World Wide Web, a final demonstration of how modern Britain – the good, the bad and the ugly – was created in the Eighties.

Pop Music

TOP 10 SINGLES

1 Do They Know It’s Christmas? Band Aid, 1984
2 Relax – Frankie Goes To Hollywood, 1983
3 I Just Called To Say I Love You – Stevie Wonder, 1984
4 Two Tribes – Frankie Goes To Hollywood 1984
5 Don’t You Want Me – Human League, 1981
6 Last Christmas – Wham!, 1984
7 Karma Chameleon – Culture Club, 1983
8 Careless Whisper – George Michael, 1984
9 The Power of Love – Jennifer Rush, 1985
10 Come On Eileen – Dexy’s Midnight Runners, 1982

The early 80’s saw the rise of a new, but short lived phenomenon – the appearance of cross-dressing pop stars. While the men were trying the look like women, the reverse also applied – although it wasn’t as wide spread.

Boy George was probably the first 80’s performer to popularise the gender bender style which saw a momentary peak in 1983. Marilyn soon followed, but in an effort to become a more serious performer, he dropped the frock and quickly fell into the fickle 80’s fashion abyss. Around the time of Boy George’s rise, Annie Lennox also appeared in Sweet Dreams – sporting a short orange haircut and male suit. While this fad seem to disappear by late 84, a momentarily resurgence of the gender benders appeared in 1985 with Dead or Alive.

TOP 10 ALBUMS

1 Brothers In Arms – Dire Straits, 1985
2 Bad – Michael Jackson, 1987
3 Thriller – Michael Jackson, 1982
4 Greatest Hits – Queen, 1981
5 Kylie – Kylie Minogue, 1988
6 Whitney – Whitney Houston, 1987
7 Tango In The Night – Fleetwood Mac, 1987
8 No Jacket Required – Phil Collins, 1985
9 True Blue – Madonna, 1986
10 The Joshua Tree – U2, 1987

Films

1 ET: The Extra-Terrestrial, 1983
2 Crocodile Dundee, 1987
3 Who Framed Roger Rabbit, 1988
4 Fatal Attraction, 1988
5 Crocodile Dundee II, 1988
6 Ghostbusters, 1984
7 Star Wars: Return of the Jedi, 1983
8 Back to the Future, 1985
9 A Fish Called Wanda, 1988
10 For Your Eyes Only, 1981

clink on links below for more memories

memories of the Sixties

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/11623627225/

memories of the Seventies

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/11644431475/

CPR / My Neighbour to the West
home equity
Image by bill barber
From my set entitled “Our Home, Streetsville”
www.flickr.com/photos/21861018@N00/sets/72157600265395738/
In my collection entitled “Places”
www.flickr.com/photos/21861018@N00/collections/7215760074…
In my photostream
www.flickr.com/photos/21861018@N00/

I’ve always lived close to railway lines. When I was growing up in Orangeville, Ontario, I lived near the main station. Both the Canadian National Railway (CNR) and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) passed through town. When my sister and I moved to a fifty acre farm in Dixie, Ontario (near Toronto) in 1960, the CPR bisected our land.

For the twenty-two years Karen and I have lived at our current address in Streetsville, Ontario, the CPR has been our neighbour across the back fence. People ask us, “Don’t the trains bother you?” We answer that we don’t even hear them.

We sit on the deck and view a lot of interesting stuff go by. One day I watched a trainload of tanks pass. Didn’t know Canada had so many tanks. We also see intriguing graffiti on the sides of tankers and boxcars. And there are cars from all over the U.S. and Canada.

This is the first shot of the trains I have taken from the deck, but there will be more. It’s best to take such pictures after the leaves have dropped, since it’s hard to see the trains through the summer foliage.

Reproduced from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Pacific_Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR; AAR reporting marks CP, CPAA, CPI), known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a Canadian Class I railway operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited. Its rail network stretches from Vancouver to Montreal, and also serves major cities in the United States such as Minneapolis, Chicago, and New York City. Its headquarters are in Calgary, Alberta.

The railway was originally built between eastern Canada and British Columbia between 1881 and 1885 (connecting with Ottawa Valley and Georgian Bay area lines built earlier), fulfilling a promise extended to British Columbia when it entered Confederation in 1871. It was Canada’s first transcontinental railway. Now primarily a freight railway, the CPR was for decades the only practical means of long distance passenger transport in most regions of Canada, and was instrumental in the settlement and development of Western Canada. The CP company became one of the largest and most powerful in Canada, a position it held as late as 1975.[1] Its primary passenger services were eliminated in 1986 after being assumed by VIA Rail Canada in 1978. A beaver was chosen as the railway’s logo because it is one of the national symbols of Canada and represents the hardworking character of the company. The object of both praise and condemnation for over 120 years, the CPR remains an indisputable icon of Canadian nationalism.

The Canadian Pacific Railway is a public company with over 15,000 employees and market capitalization of 7 billion USD in 2008.[2]

Canada’s very existence depended on the successful completion of the major civil engineering project, the creation of a transcontinental railway. Creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway was a task originally undertaken for a combination of reasons by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald. British Columbia had insisted upon a transport link to the east as a condition for joining the Confederation of Canada (initially requesting a wagon road). The government however, proposed to build a railway linking the Pacific province to the eastern provinces within ten years of July 20, 1871. Macdonald also saw it as essential to the creation of a unified Canadian nation that would stretch across the continent. Moreover, manufacturing interests in Quebec and Ontario desired access to sources of raw materials and markets in Canada’s west.

The first obstacle to its construction was economic. The logical route went through the American Midwest and the city of Chicago, Illinois. In addition to the obvious difficulty of building a railroad through the Canadian Rockies, an entirely Canadian route would require crossing 1,600 km (1,000 miles) of rugged terrain of the barren Canadian Shield and muskeg of Northern Ontario. To ensure this routing, the government offered huge incentives including vast grants of land in Western Canada.

In 1872, Sir John A. Macdonald and other high-ranking politicians, swayed by bribes in the so-called Pacific Scandal, granted federal contracts to Hugh Allan’s "Canada Pacific Railway Company" (which was unrelated to the current company) and to the Inter-Ocean Railway Company. Because of this scandal, the Conservative party was removed from office in 1873. The new Liberal prime minister, Alexander Mackenzie, began construction of segments of the railway as a public enterprise under the supervision of the Department of Public Works. The Thunder Bay branch linking Lake Superior to Winnipeg was commenced in 1875. Progress was discouragingly slow because of the lack of public money. With Sir John A. Macdonald’s return to power on October 16, 1878, a more aggressive construction policy was adopted. Macdonald confirmed that Port Moody would be the terminus of the transcontinental railway, and announced that the railway would follow the Fraser and Thompson rivers between Port Moody and Kamloops. In 1879, the federal government floated bonds in London and called for tenders to construct the 206 km (128 mile) section of the railway from Yale, British Columbia to Savona’s Ferry on Kamloops Lake. The contract was awarded to Andrew Onderdonk, whose men started work on May 15, 1880. After the completion of that section, Onderdonk received contracts to build between Yale and Port Moody, and between Savona’s Ferry and Eagle Pass.

On October 21, 1880, a new syndicate, unrelated to Hugh Allan’s, signed a contract with the Macdonald government. They agreed to build the railway in exchange for ,000,000 (approximately 5,000,000 in modern Canadian dollars) in credit from the Canadian government and a grant of 25,000,000 acres (100,000 km²) of land. The government transferred to the new company those sections of the railway it had constructed under government ownership. The government also defrayed surveying costs and exempted the railway from property taxes for 20 years. The Montreal-based syndicate officially comprised five men: George Stephen, James J. Hill, Duncan McIntyre, Richard B. Angus, and John Stewart Kennedy. Donald A. Smith and Norman Kittson were unofficial silent partners with a significant financial interest. On February 15, 1881, legislation confirming the contract received royal assent, and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company was formally incorporated the next day.

The CPR started its westward expansion from Bonfield, Ontario (previously called Callander Station) where the first spike was driven into a sunken railway tie. Bonfield, Ontario was inducted into Canadian Railway Hall of Fame in 2002 as the CPR First Spike location. That was the point where the Canada Central Railway extension ended. The CCR was owned by Duncan McIntyre who amalgamated it with the CPR and became one of the handful of officers of the newly formed CPR. The CCR started in Brockville and extended to Pembroke. It then followed a westward route along the Ottawa River passing through places like Cobden, Deux-Rivières, and eventually to Mattawa at the confluence of the Mattawa and Ottawa Rivers. It then proceeded cross-country towards its final destination Bonfield (previously called Callander Station).

Duncan McIntyre and his contractor James Worthington piloted the CCR expansion. Worthington continued on as the construction superintendent for the CPR past Bonfield. He remained with the CPR for about a year until he left the company. McIntyre was uncle to John Ferguson who staked out future North Bay after getting assurance from his uncle and Worthington that it would be the divisional and a location of some importance.

It was assumed that the railway would travel through the rich "Fertile Belt" of the North Saskatchewan River valley and cross the Rocky Mountains via the Yellowhead Pass, a route suggested by Sir Sandford Fleming based on a decade of work. However, the CPR quickly discarded this plan in favour of a more southerly route across the arid Palliser’s Triangle in Saskatchewan and through Kicking Horse Pass over the Field Hill. This route was more direct and closer to the American border, making it easier for the CPR to keep American railways from encroaching on the Canadian market. However, this route also had several disadvantages.

One consequence was that the CPR would need to find a route through the Selkirk Mountains, as at the time it was not known whether a route even existed. The job of finding a pass was assigned to a surveyor named Major Albert Bowman Rogers. The CPR promised him a cheque for ,000 and that the pass would be named in his honour. Rogers became obsessed with finding the pass that would immortalize his name. He found the pass on May 29, 1881, and true to its word, the CPR named the pass "Rogers Pass" and gave him the cheque. This however, he at first refused to cash, preferring to frame it, and saying he did not do it for the money. He later agreed to cash it with the promise of an engraved watch.

Another obstacle was that the proposed route crossed land controlled by the Blackfoot First Nation. This difficulty was overcome when a missionary priest, Albert Lacombe, persuaded the Blackfoot chief Crowfoot that construction of the railway was inevitable.

In return for his assent, Crowfoot was famously rewarded with a lifetime pass to ride the CPR. A more lasting consequence of the choice of route was that, unlike the one proposed by Fleming, the land surrounding the railway often proved too arid for successful agriculture. The CPR may have placed too much reliance on a report from naturalist John Macoun, who had crossed the prairies at a time of very high rainfall and had reported that the area was fertile.

The greatest disadvantage of the route was in Kicking Horse Pass. In the first 6 km (3.7 miles) west of the 1,625 metre (5,330 ft) high summit, the Kicking Horse River drops 350 metres (1,150 ft). The steep drop would force the cash-strapped CPR to build a 7 km (4.5 mile) long stretch of track with a very steep 4.5% gradient once it reached the pass in 1884. This was over four times the maximum gradient recommended for railways of this era, and even modern railways rarely exceed a 2% gradient. However, this route was far more direct than one through the Yellowhead Pass, and saved hours for both passengers and freight. This section of track was the CPR’s Big Hill. Safety switches were installed at several points, the speed limit for descending trains was set at 10 km per hour (6 mph), and special locomotives were ordered. Despite these measures, several serious runaways still occurred. CPR officials insisted that this was a temporary expediency, but this state of affairs would last for 25 years until the completion of the Spiral Tunnels in the early 20th century.

In 1881 construction progressed at a pace too slow for the railway’s officials, who in 1882 hired the renowned railway executive William Cornelius Van Horne, to oversee construction with the inducement of a generous salary and the intriguing challenge of handling such a difficult railway project. Van Horne stated that he would have 800 km (500 miles) of main line built in 1882. Floods delayed the start of the construction season, but over 672 km (417 miles) of main line, as well as various sidings and branch lines, were built that year. The Thunder Bay branch (west from Fort William) was completed in June 1882 by the Department of Railways and Canals and turned over to the company in May 1883, permitting all-Canadian lake and rail traffic from eastern Canada to Winnipeg for the first time in Canada’s history. By the end of 1883, the railway had reached the Rocky Mountains, just eight km (5 miles) east of Kicking Horse Pass. The construction seasons of 1884 and 1885 would be spent in the mountains of British Columbia and on the north shore of Lake Superior.

Many thousands of navvies worked on the railway. Many were European immigrants. In British Columbia, the CPR hired workers from China, nicknamed coolies. A navvy received between and .50 per day, but had to pay for his own food, clothing, transportation to the job site, mail, and medical care. After two and a half months of back-breaking labour, they could net as little as . Chinese navvies in British Columbia made only between .75 and .25 a day, not including expenses, leaving barely anything to send home. They did the most dangerous construction jobs, such as working with explosives. The families of the Chinese who were killed received no compensation, or even notification of loss of life. Many of the men who survived did not have enough money to return to their families in China. Many spent years in lonely, sad and often poor conditions. Yet the Chinese were hard working and played a key role in building the western stretch of the railway; even some boys as young as 12 years old served as tea-boys.

By 1883, railway construction was progressing rapidly, but the CPR was in danger of running out of funds. In response, on January 31, 1884, the government passed the Railway Relief Bill, providing a further ,500,000 in loans to the CPR. The bill received royal assent on March 6, 1884.

In March 1885, the North-West Rebellion broke out in the District of Saskatchewan. Van Horne, in Ottawa at the time, suggested to the government that the CPR could transport troops to Qu’Appelle, Assiniboia, in eleven days. Some sections of track were incomplete or had not been used before, but the trip to Winnipeg was made in nine days and the rebellion was quickly put down. Perhaps because the government was grateful for this service, they subsequently re-organized the CPR’s debt and provided a further ,000,000 loan. This money was desperately needed by the CPR. On November 7, 1885 the Last Spike was driven at Craigellachie, British Columbia, making good on the original promise. Four days earlier, the last spike of the Lake Superior section was driven in just west of Jackfish, Ontario. While the railway was completed four years after the original 1881 deadline, it was completed more than five years ahead of the new date of 1891 that Macdonald gave in 1881.

The successful construction of such a massive project, although troubled by delays and scandal, was considered an impressive feat of engineering and political will for a country with such a small population, limited capital, and difficult terrain. It was by far the longest railway ever constructed at the time. It had taken 12,000 men, 5,000 horses, and 300 dog-sled teams to build the railway.

Meanwhile, in Eastern Canada, the CPR had created a network of lines reaching from Quebec City to St. Thomas, Ontario by 1885, and had launched a fleet of Great Lakes ships to link its terminals. The CPR had effected purchases and long-term leases of several railways through an associated railway company, the Ontario and Quebec Railway (O&Q). The O&Q built a line between Perth, Ontario, and Toronto (completed on May 5, 1884) to connect these acquisitions. The CPR obtained a 999-year lease on the O&Q on January 4, 1884. Later, in 1895, it acquired a minority interest in the Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway, giving it a link to New York and the northeast US.

So many cost-cutting shortcuts were taken in constructing the railway that regular transcontinental service could not start for another seven months while work was done to improve the railway’s condition. However, had these shortcuts not been taken, it is conceivable that the CPR might have had to default financially, leaving the railway unfinished. The first transcontinental passenger train departed from Montreal’s Dalhousie Station, located at Berri Street and Notre Dame Street on June 28, 1886 at 8:00 p.m. and arrived at Port Moody on July 4, 1886 at noon. This train consisted of two baggage cars, a mail car, one second-class coach, two immigrant sleepers, two first-class coaches, two sleeping cars, and a diner.

By that time, however, the CPR had decided to move its western terminus from Port Moody to Gastown, which was renamed "Vancouver" later that year. The first official train destined for Vancouver arrived on May 23, 1887, although the line had already been in use for three months. The CPR quickly became profitable, and all loans from the Federal government were repaid years ahead of time.

In 1888, a branch line was opened between Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie where the CPR connected with the American railway system and its own steamships. That same year, work was started on a line from London, Ontario to the American border at Windsor, Ontario. That line opened on June 12, 1890.

The CPR also leased the New Brunswick Railway for 999 years and built the International Railway of Maine, connecting Montreal with Saint John, New Brunswick in 1889. The connection with Saint John on the Atlantic coast made the CPR the first truly transcontinental railway company and permitted trans-Atlantic cargo and passenger services to continue year-round when sea ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence closed the port of Montreal during the winter months.

By 1896, competition with the Great Northern Railway for traffic in southern British Columbia forced the CPR to construct a second line across the province, south of the original line. Van Horne, now president of the CPR, asked for government aid, and the government agreed to provide around .6 million to construct a railway from Lethbridge, Alberta through Crowsnest Pass to the south shore of Kootenay Lake, in exchange for the CPR agreeing to reduce freight rates in perpetuity for key commodities shipped in Western Canada. The controversial Crowsnest Pass Agreement effectively locked the eastbound rate on grain products and westbound rates on certain "settlers’ effects" at the 1897 level. Although temporarily suspended during World War I, it was not until 1983 that the "Crow Rate" was permanently replaced by the Western Grain Transportation Act which allowed for the gradual increase of grain shipping prices. The Crowsnest Pass line opened on June 18, 1899.

Practically speaking, the CPR had built a railway that operated mostly in the wilderness. The usefulness of the Prairies was questionable in the minds of many. The thinking prevailed that the Prairies had great potential. Under the initial contract with the Canadian Government to build the railway, the CPR was granted 25,000,000 acres (100,000 km²). Proving already to be a very resourceful organization, Canadian Pacific began an intense campaign to bring immigrants to Canada.

Canadian Pacific agents operated in many overseas locations. Immigrants were often sold a package that included passage on a CP ship, travel on a CP train, and land sold by the CP railway. Land was priced at .50 an acre and up. Immigrants paid very little for a seven-day journey to the West. They rode in Colonist cars that had sleeping facilities and a small kitchen at one end of the car. Children were not allowed off the train, lest they wander off and be left behind. The directors of the CPR knew that not only were they creating a nation, but also a long-term source of revenue for their company.

During the first decade of the twentieth century, the CPR continued to build more lines. In 1908 the CPR opened a line connecting Toronto with Sudbury. Previously, westbound traffic originating in southern Ontario took a circuitous route through eastern Ontario.
Several operational improvements were also made to the railway in western Canada. In 1909 the CPR completed two significant engineering accomplishments. The most significant was the replacement of the Big Hill, which had become a major bottleneck in the CPR’s main line, with the Spiral Tunnels, reducing the grade to 2.2% from 4.5%. The Spiral Tunnels opened in August. On November 3, 1909, the Lethbridge Viaduct over the Oldman River valley at Lethbridge, Alberta was opened. It is 1,624 metres (5,327 ft) long and, at its maximum, 96 metres (314 ft) high, making it the longest railway bridge in Canada. In 1916 the CPR replaced its line through Rogers Pass, which was prone to avalanches, with the Connaught Tunnel, an eight km (5 mile) long tunnel under Mount Macdonald that was, at the time of its opening, the longest railway tunnel in the Western Hemisphere.

The CPR acquired several smaller railways via long-term leases in 1912. On January 3, 1912, the CPR acquired the Dominion Atlantic Railway, a railway that ran in western Nova Scotia. This acquisition gave the CPR a connection to Halifax, a significant port on the Atlantic Ocean. The Dominion Atlantic was isolated from the rest of the CPR network and used the CNR to facilitate interchange; the DAR also operated ferry services across the Bay of Fundy for passengers and cargo (but not rail cars) from the port of Digby, Nova Scotia to the CPR at Saint John, New Brunswick. DAR steamships also provided connections for passengers and cargo between Yarmouth, Boston and New York.

On July 1, 1912, the CPR acquired the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, a railway on Vancouver Island that connected to the CPR using a railcar ferry. The CPR also acquired the Quebec Central Railway on December 14, 1912.

During the late 19th century, the railway undertook an ambitious program of hotel construction, building the Château Frontenac in Quebec City, the Royal York Hotel in Toronto, the Banff Springs Hotel, and several other major Canadian landmarks. By then, the CPR had competition from three other transcontinental lines, all of them money-losers. In 1919, these lines were consolidated, along with the track of the old Intercolonial Railway and its spurs, into the government-owned Canadian National Railways.

When World War I broke out in 1914, the CPR devoted resources to the war effort, and managed to stay profitable while its competitors struggled to remain solvent. After the war, the Federal government created Canadian National Railways (CNR, later CN) out of several bankrupt railways that fell into government hands during and after the war. CNR would become the main competitor to the CPR in Canada.

The Great Depression, which lasted from 1929 until 1939, hit many companies heavily. While the CPR was affected, it was not affected to the extent of its rival CNR because it, unlike the CNR, was debt-free. The CPR scaled back on some of its passenger and freight services, and stopped issuing dividends to its shareholders after 1932.

One highlight of the 1930s, both for the railway and for Canada, was the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to Canada in 1939, the first time that the reigning monarch had visited the country. The CPR and the CNR shared the honours of pulling the royal train across the country, with the CPR undertaking the westbound journey from Quebec City to Vancouver.

Later that year, World War II began. As it had done in World War I, the CPR devoted much of its resources to the war effort. It retooled its Angus Shops in Montreal to produce Valentine tanks, and transported troops and resources across the country. As well, 22 of the CPR’s ships went to warfare, 12 of which were sunk.

After World War II, the transportation industry in Canada changed. Where railways had previously provided almost universal freight and passenger services, cars, trucks, and airplanes started to take traffic away from railways. This naturally helped the CPR’s air and trucking operations, and the railway’s freight operations continued to thrive hauling resource traffic and bulk commodities. However, passenger trains quickly became unprofitable.

During the 1950s, the railway introduced new innovations in passenger service, and in 1955 introduced The Canadian, a new luxury transcontinental train. However, starting in the 1960s the company started to pull out of passenger services, ending services on many of its branch lines. It also discontinued its transcontinental train The Dominion in 1966, and in 1970 unsuccessfully applied to discontinue The Canadian. For the next eight years, it continued to apply to discontinue the service, and service on The Canadian declined markedly. On October 29, 1978, CP Rail transferred its passenger services to VIA Rail, a new federal Crown corporation that is responsible for managing all intercity passenger service formerly handled by both CP Rail and CN. VIA eventually took almost all of its passenger trains, including The Canadian, off CP’s lines.

In 1968, as part of a corporate re-organization, each of the CPR’s major operations, including its rail operations, were organized as separate subsidiaries. The name of the railway was changed to CP Rail, and the parent company changed its name to Canadian Pacific Limited in 1971. Its express, telecommunications, hotel and real estate holdings were spun off, and ownership of all of the companies transferred to Canadian Pacific Investments. The company discarded its beaver logo, adopting the new Multimark logo that could be used for each of its operations.

In 1984 CP Rail commenced construction of the Mount Macdonald Tunnel to augment the Connaught Tunnel under the Selkirk Mountains. The first revenue train passed through the tunnel in 1988. At 14.7 km (9 miles), it is the longest tunnel in the Americas.

During the 1980s, the Soo Line, in which CP Rail still owned a controlling interest, underwent several changes. It acquired the Minneapolis, Northfield and Southern Railway in 1982. Then on February 21, 1985, the Soo Line obtained a controlling interest in the Milwaukee Road, merging it into its system on January 1, 1986. Also in 1980 Canadian Pacific bought out the controlling interests of the Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway (TH&B) from Conrail and molded it into the Canadian Pacific System, dissolving the TH&B’s name from the books in 1985. In 1987 most of CPR’s trackage in the Great Lakes region, including much of the original Soo Line, were spun off into a new railway, the Wisconsin Central, which was subsequently purchased by CN.

Influenced by the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement of 1989 which liberalized trade between the two nations, the CPR’s expansion continued during the early 1990s: CP Rail gained full control of the Soo Line in 1990, and bought the Delaware and Hudson Railway in 1991. These two acquisitions gave CP Rail routes to the major American cities of Chicago (via the Soo Line) and New York City (via the D&H).

During the next few years CP Rail downsized its route, and several Canadian branch lines were either sold to short lines or abandoned. This included all of its lines east of Montreal, with the routes operating across Maine and New Brunswick to the port of Saint John (operating as the Canadian Atlantic Railway) being sold or abandoned, severing CPR’s transcontinental status (in Canada); the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in the late 1950s, coupled with subsidized icebreaking services, made Saint John surplus to CPR’s requirements. During the 1990s, both CP Rail and CN attempted unsuccessfully to buy out the eastern assets of the other, so as to permit further rationalization. As well, it closed divisional and regional offices, drastically reduced white collar staff, and consolidated its Canadian traffic control system in Calgary, Alberta.

Finally, in 1996, reflecting the increased importance of western traffic to the railway, CP Rail moved its head office to Calgary from Montreal and changed its name back to Canadian Pacific Railway. A new subsidiary company, the St. Lawrence and Hudson Railway, was created to operate its money-losing lines in eastern North America, covering Quebec, Southern and Eastern Ontario, trackage rights to Chicago, Illinois, as well as the Delaware and Hudson Railway in the U.S. Northeast. However, the new subsidiary, threatened with being sold off and free to innovate, quickly spun off losing track to short lines, instituted scheduled freight service, and produced an unexpected turn-around in profitability. After only four years, CPR revised its opinion and the StL&H formally re-amalgamated with its parent on January 1, 2001.

In 2001, the CPR’s parent company, Canadian Pacific Limited, spun off its five subsidiaries, including the CPR, into independent companies. Canadian Pacific Railway formally (but, not legally) shortened its name to Canadian Pacific in early 2007, dropping the word "railway" in order to reflect more operational flexibility. Shortly after the name revision, Canadian Pacific announced that it had committed to becoming a major sponsor and logistics provider to the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, British Columbia.

On September 4, 2007, CPR announced it was acquiring the Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad from its present owners, London-based Electra Private Equity.[3] The transaction is an "end-to-end" consolidation,[4][5] and will give CPR access to U.S. shippers of agricultural products, ethanol, and coal. CPR has stated its intention to use this purchase to gain access to the rich coal fields of Wyoming’s Powder River Basin. The purchase price is US.48 billion, and future payments of over US.0 billion contingent on commencement of construction on the smaller railroad’s Powder River extension and specified volumes of coal shipments from the Powder River basin.[4] The transaction was subject to approval of the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), which was expected to take a year.[4] On October 4, 2007, CPR announced it has completed the financial transactions required for the acquisition, placing the DM&E and IC&E in a voting trust with Richard Hamlin appointed as the trustee. CPR planned to integrate the railroads’ operations once the STB approves the acquisition.[6] The merger was completed as of October 31, 2008.[7]

Post Processing;
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PhotoShop Elements 5: crop, multiply, posterization, ink outlines, sandstone texture

Nice Sell Home photos

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Some cool sell home images:

Entertainment Room (14×21+)
sell home
Image by robglinka
Glinka Home Sale

10 Issaquah home
sell home
Image by nicwn
Selling all the furnitures, hence posting all the pics

These were bought new for over 00 a few years ago and they have been sitting in the living room on our non-smoking home for decoration ever since. So, you’re paying 0 for this 99% new set!

Sofa & love seat is made of beautiful stain resistant fabric w/ floral pattern. (Country style?) Coffee and corner table are matching with beautiful stone tiles on top. Authentic perisan rug not included.

The reason why we’re selling is because we’re selling the house and moving out of Washington State. So, everything must go!

Nice Credit score Card Rate of interest pictures

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A couple of wonderful bank card rate of interest pictures I discovered:

Altar piece of grief
credit card interest rate
< img alt=" credit history card interest price" src =" https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/6836476451_5fab20f0f2.jpg" width =" 400"/ > Picture by< a href =" http://www.flickr.com/photos/56867858@N03/6836476451" > Pranav Babu Photography Sheffield Sanctuary Repressed
church piece of grief, drowning in the church of materialism, with no Noah in sight. Unknot the tie of conformity that strangles your really existence, it is but a plain canine collar of slavery. Go to function, send your children to institution, comply with fashion, act regular, stroll on the pavement, see T.V obtain persuaded by the biased media, conserve for your seniority, obey the legislation. Repeat after me: I AM COST-FREE!?? Playing around in circles in your hampster wheel, getting stuff you never had to impress individuals you never ever respected, gathering passion on your charge card, the rate of interest they utilize to chain you down into functioning more to repay your financial debts. Human slavery, needs you to be housed and fed by your master, economic slavery requires you to feed as well as house on your own, and their primary weapon now is the RATES OF INTEREST utilized by financial institutions, to obtain take advantage of on you by engaging you into even more financial debt hence making you work more to settle it, compulsion to do anything is enslavement! We belong to divine spirituality that unifies all people and also all countries, We do not come from the church of Mcdonalds, Gucci, Morgan stanley, Rockefeller, numerous banks as well as other types of approximate splitting up within our zeitgeist. Many people live a person elses life, their ideas a person elses viewpoint, their lives a mimicry, their enthusiasms a quotation. Do just what you want to do today since you want to do it( aslong as it doesn’t damage anyone else), be that you wish to be today! Dream big, as well as never stop following them! Be different! Do not adhere! Do not adhere to the other lamb! Since it is by no means an indicator of sanity to be well adjusted to the greatly ill world we reside in today. Spread out the message, because none are more hopelessly enslaved than those that wrongly believe they are free credit reports from all 3 bureaus.

Nice Credit Repair photos

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Some amazing credit score repair photos:

Credit scores Fixing
credit repair
< img alt="credit scores fixing"src="https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/28710919532_ca108471a8.jpg"width="400"/ > Image by complexsearch Credit score Fixing Images
, perfect for short articles on enhancing your credit scores, as well as credit rating rating.

Free to utilize this picture please recommendation the image credit report to ComplexSearch www.complexsearch.com.
Instance: [Photo Credit history: ComplexSearch]

Nice Credit Rating photos

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A few nice credit rating images I found:

Hubble Spies Charming Spiral Galaxy Bursting with Stars
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Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Video
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope observes some of the most beautiful galaxies in our skies — spirals sparkling with bright stellar nurseries, violent duos ripping gas and stars away from one another as they tangle together, and ethereal irregular galaxies that hang like flocks of birds suspended in the blackness of space.

However, galaxies, like humans, are not all supermodels. This little spiral, known as NGC 4102, has a different kind of appeal, with its tightly-wound spiral arms and understated, but charming, appearance.

NGC 4102 lies in the northern constellation of Ursa Major (The Great Bear). It contains what is known as a LINER, or low-ionization nuclear emission-line region, meaning that its nucleus emits particular types of radiation — specifically, emission from weakly-ionized or neutral atoms of certain elements. Even in this sense, NGC 4102 is not special; around one third of all nearby galaxies are thought to be LINER galaxies.

Many LINER galaxies also contain intense regions of star formation. This is thought to be intrinsically linked to their centers but just why, is still a mystery for astronomers — either the starbursts pour fuel inwards to fuel the LINERs, or this active central region triggers the starbursts. NGC 4102 does indeed contain a starburst region towards its center, where stars are being created at a rate much more furious than in a normal galaxy. This star formation is taking place within a small rotating disk, around 1000 light-years in diameter and with a mass some three billion times the mass of the sun.

This image uses infrared and visible observations taken using Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

Credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA and S. Smartt (Queen’s University Belfast) Acknowledgement: Renaud Houdinet

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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.
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Galactic Pyrotechnics on Display (NASA, Chandra, 07/02/14)
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Image by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center
A galaxy about 23 million light years away is the site of impressive, ongoing fireworks. Rather than paper, powder and fire, this

galactic light show involves a giant black hole, shock waves and vast reservoirs of gas.

This galactic fireworks display is taking place in NGC 4258, also known as M106, a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way. This galaxy is

famous, however, for something that our galaxy doesn’t have – two extra spiral arms that glow in X-ray, optical and radio light. These

features, or anomalous arms, are not aligned with the plane of the galaxy, but instead intersect with it.

The anomalous arms are seen in this new composite image of NGC 4258, where X-rays from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory are blue, radio

data from the NSF’s Karl Jansky Very Large Array are purple, optical data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope are yellow and infrared

data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope are red.

A new study made with Spitzer shows that shock waves, similar to sonic booms from supersonic planes, are heating large amounts of gas –

equivalent to about 10 million suns. What is generating these shock waves? Researchers think that the supermassive black hole at the

center of NGC 4258 is producing powerful jets of high-energy particles. These jets strike the disk of the galaxy and generate shock

waves. These shock waves, in turn, heat the gas – composed mainly of hydrogen molecules – to thousands of degrees.

The Chandra X-ray image reveals huge bubbles of hot gas above and below the plane of the galaxy. These bubbles indicate that much of

the gas that was originally in the disk of the galaxy has been heated and ejected into the outer regions by the jets from the black

hole.

The ejection of gas from the disk by the jets has important implications for the fate of this galaxy. Researchers estimate that all of

the remaining gas will be ejected within the next 300 million years – very soon on cosmic time scales – unless it is somehow

replenished. Because most of the gas in the disk has already been ejected, less gas is available for new stars to form. Indeed, the

researchers used Spitzer data to estimate that stars are forming in the central regions of NGC 4258, at a rate which is about ten times

less than in the Milky Way galaxy.

The European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory was used to confirm the estimate from Spitzer data of the low star formation

rate in the central regions of NGC 4258. Herschel was also used to make an independent estimate of how much gas remains in the center

of the galaxy. After allowing for the large boost in infrared emission caused by the shocks, the researchers found that the gas mass is

ten times smaller than had been previously estimated.

Because NGC 4258 is relatively close to Earth, astronomers can study how this black hole is affecting its galaxy in great detail. The

supermassive black hole at the center of NGC 4258 is about ten times larger than the one in the Milky Way and is consuming material at

a faster rate, potentially increasing its impact on the evolution of its host galaxy.

These results were published in the June 20, 2014 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters and are available online. The authors are

Patrick Ogle, Lauranne Lanz and Philip Appleton from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California.

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in

Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.

Original caption/more images: www.nasa.gov/chandra/multimedia/galactic-pyrotechnics.html

Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Caltech/P.Ogle et al; Optical: NASA/STScI; IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA

Read more about Chandra:
www.nasa.gov/chandra

p.s. You can see all of our Chandra photos in the Chandra Group in Flickr at: www.flickr.com/groups/chandranasa/ We’d love to have you as a member!

_____________________________________________
These official NASA photographs are being made available for publication by news organizations and/or for personal use printing by the

subject(s) of the photographs. The photographs may not be used in materials, advertisements, products, or promotions that in any way

suggest approval or endorsement by NASA. All Images used must be credited. For information on usage rights please visit: www.nasa.gov/audience/formedia/features/MP_Photo_Guidelin…

Hubble Sees a “Behemoth” Bleeding Atmosphere Around a Warm Exoplanet
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Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Video
Astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have discovered an immense cloud of hydrogen dubbed “The Behemoth” bleeding from a planet orbiting a nearby star. The enormous, comet-like feature is about 50 times the size of the parent star. The hydrogen is evaporating from a warm, Neptune-sized planet, due to extreme radiation from the star.

This phenomenon has never been seen around an exoplanet so small. It may offer clues to how other planets with hydrogen-enveloped atmospheres could have their outer layers evaporated by their parent star, leaving behind solid, rocky cores. Hot, rocky planets such as these that roughly the size of Earth are known as Hot-Super Earths.

“This cloud is very spectacular, though the evaporation rate does not threaten the planet right now,” explains the study’s leader, David Ehrenreich of the Observatory of the University of Geneva in Switzerland. “But we know that in the past, the star, which is a faint red dwarf, was more active. This means that the planet evaporated faster during its first billion years of existence because of the strong radiation from the young star. Overall, we estimate that it may have lost up to 10 percent of its atmosphere over the past several billion years.”

Read more: www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/hubble-sees-a-behemoth-bleed…

Caption: This artist’s concept shows "The Behemoth," an enormous comet-like cloud of hydrogen bleeding off of a warm, Neptune-sized planet just 30 light-years from Earth. Also depicted is the parent star, which is a faint red dwarf named GJ 436. The hydrogen is evaporating from the planet due to extreme radiation from the star. A phenomenon this large has never before been seen around any exoplanet.

Credits: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)

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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.

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Nice Bankruptcy photos

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Some cool bankruptcy images:

Bankruptcy
bankruptcy
Image by cafecredit
Photo by CafeCredit under CC 2.0

You can use this photo for FREE under Creative Commons license. Make sure to give proper author attribution to www.cafecredit.com.

Thank you for respecting Creative Commons license.

P.S. Need more photos like this? Check out my flickr profile page.

Bankruptcy is a legal status which means you cannot pay off your debts. it simply means you have no income to meet your debt obligations. You may still be making money, just not enough to cover debts. In some cases, debts are reorganized so the individual or company can pay off some of the debt.

Bankruptcy
bankruptcy
Image by fodwyer

Nice Free Annual Credit History pictures

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Check out these no-cost yearly credit report photos:

Alberto Santos-Dumont
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Image by dbking
Alberto Santos-Dumont (July 20, 1873 – July 23, 1932) ended up being a significant very early pioneer of aviation. Although he had been created, was raised, and died in Brazil, his efforts to aviation had been made as he ended up being staying in France.

Santos-Dumont created, built, and flew the first practical dirigible balloons (for example. airships). In doing this he became the first individual show that routine, managed trip had been possible. This "conquest of air", particularly winning the Deutsch de la Meurthe reward on October 19, 1901 on a flight that rounded the Eiffel Tower, made him very famous persons worldwide during very early 1900s.

As well as their pioneering work in airships, Santos-Dumont made initial community journey of a plane in European countries, in Paris in October of 1906. That aircraft, designated 14 Bis or Oiseau de proie (French for "bird of prey"), is recognized as become the first to lose, travel, and land minus the usage of catapults, large winds, launch rails, or any other external assistance. Hence, most Brazilians start thinking about him becoming the "Father of Aviation" plus the creator for the aircraft.

Much controversy persists all over numerous competing claims of early aviators.

Childhood in Brazil
Santos-Dumont came to be in Cabengu, a village in the Brazilian town of Palmira (These days the spot is Santos-Dumont inside state of Minas Gerais.) He spent my youth since the youngest of eleven kiddies on a coffee plantation had by his family in the state of São Paulo. Their French-born daddy ended up being an engineer, making considerable utilization of the most recent labor-saving innovations on their vast home. Therefore effective had been these innovations that Santos-Dumont’s dad collected a large fortune and became known as the "Coffee King of Brazil."

Santos-Dumont had been interested in equipment, and while still a kid he learned to operate a vehicle the vapor tractors and locomotive applied to his family’s plantation. He was in addition a fan of Jules Verne and had read all his books before his tenth birthday celebration. He had written in the autobiography that the desire flying came to him while contemplating the magnificent heavens of Brazil into the lengthy, sunny afternoons at plantation.

Based on the custom of affluent groups of enough time, after receiving standard instruction acquainted with personal instructors (including his parents), young Alberto had been sent alone to larger towns to complete their secondary scientific studies. He studied for a while in "Colégio Culto à Ciência", in Campinas.

Proceed to France
In 1891, Alberto’s dad had any sort of accident while examining some equipment. He dropped from his horse and became a paraplegic. He decided then to offer the plantation and go on to Europe together with his partner along with his youngest boy. At seventeen, Santos-Dumont left the prestigious Escola de Minas in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, for city Paris in France. First thing he did there was to purchase a vehicle. Later, he pursued studies in physics, chemistry, mechanics, and electricity, with a personal tutor.

Balloons and dirigibles
Santos-Dumont described himself since the first "sportsman for the air." He began flying by hiring a seasoned balloon pilot and took his very first balloon rides as a passenger. He quickly moved on to piloting balloons himself, and soon after that to creating his or her own balloons. In 1898, Santos-Dumont flew his very first balloon design, the Brésil.

After many balloon routes, he looked to the look of steerable balloons or dirigible type balloons that may be propelled through the environment in place of drifting along with the snap. Between 1898 and 1905 he built and flew 11 dirigibles. With air-traffic control restrictions nonetheless years in the foreseeable future, he’d glide along Paris boulevards at rooftop level in another of his airships, frequently landing facing a fashionable outdoor cafe for meal. Using one celebration he even flew an airship early one early morning to his very own apartment at No. 9, Rue Washington, simply off Avenue diverses Champs-Élysées maybe not not even close to the Arc de Triomphe.

The zenith of their lighter-than-air job arrived as he won the Deutsch de los angeles Meurthe reward. The challenge called for traveling through the Parc Saint-Cloud on Eiffel Tower and back in less than thirty minutes. The champion for the prize would need to maintain an average ground rate of at least 22 km/hour (14 mph) to cover the round trip distance of 11 kilometer (6.8 miles) in the allocated time.

After a few attempts and studies, Santos-Dumont succeeded on October 19, 1901 making use of their dirigible Number 6. soon after the trip, a debate smashed on around a final minute guideline change about the accurate time associated with trip. There is much community outcry and remark inside hit. Eventually, after a number of days of vacilating because of the committee of officials, Santos-Dumont ended up being granted the prize plus the prize money of 100,000 francs. In a charitable motion, he donated half the award cash to the poor of Paris. Others 1 / 2 was handed to their workmen as a plus.

Santos-Dumont’s aviation feats made him a celebrity in Europe and around the world. He won a few more awards and became a buddy to millionaires, aviation pioneers, and royalty. In 1901 he had been considered by many to be the essential famous individual in the world. In 1904, he went along to america and had been welcomed on White House to meet up with United States President Theodore Roosevelt. The general public eagerly then followed their bold exploits. Parisians affectionately dubbed him le petit Santos. The trendy people of time mimicked various components of their form of dress from their high-collared tops to singed Panama hat. He had been, and continues to be to this day, a prominent people hero in his native Brazil.

Heavier-than-air
Although Santos-Dumont proceeded to your workplace on dirigibles, their major interest soon considered heavier-than-air-craft. By 1905 he had done his very first airplane design, also a helicopter. He finally realized their desire flying on an airplane in October 23 of 1906, when, piloting the 14 Bis before a sizable group of witnesses, he travelled a distance of 60 metres (197 ft) at a height of 2-3 m. This well-documented event ended up being the initial flight verified because of the Aero-Club De France of a powered heavier-than-air device in European countries, therefore the very first general public demonstration in the wide world of an aircraft taking off from an ordinary airstrip with a non-detachable landing gear as well as on its very own energy (self-propelled) in relaxed climate, showing into the spectators that a device "heavier than air" might take faraway from the floor by its means. Using this success, he won the Archdeacon reward founded because of the Frenchman Ernest Archdeacon in July of 1906, become granted toward very first aviator to travel more than 25 yards. On November 12 of the identical 12 months, Santos-Dumont succeeded in setting 1st world-record in aviation by traveling 220 meters within just 22 moments. These two activities took place ahead of the Wright Brothers had made any routes to which people ended up being invited, even though the Wright Brothers had made and photographed circular flights in excess of around 30 minutes with witnesses at a field alongside a public roadway 12 months earlier near Dayton, Ohio.

The 14bis on its historical first flight.Santos-Dumont made numerous contributions towards industry of plane control. The essential noteworthy one had been the usage effective ailerons at exterior wings. Although ailerons have been used in sailplanes before, Dumont pioneered their application for plane. He additionally forced for and exploited substantial improvements in motor power-to-weight ratio, alongside refinements in aircraft construction methods.

Santos-Dumont’s last design had been the Demoiselle monoplane. This plane had been used as Dumont’s private transportation and he willingly let other individuals use his design. The fuselage consisted of a specially reinforced bamboo boom, in addition to pilot sat beneath amongst the primary rims of a tricycle landing gear. The Demoiselle ended up being managed in-flight partly by a tail device that functioned both elevator and rudder by wing warping.

The high-wing Demoiselle aircraft had a wingspan of 5.10 m and a general amount of 8 m. Its body weight was little more than 110 kg with Santos-Dumont at the settings. The pilot ended up being sitting below the fuselage-wing junction, just behind the rims, and commanded the end surfaces utilizing a steering wheel. The cables of sustentation of the wing were made of piano ropes. In the beginning, Santos-Dumont employed a liquid-cooled Dutheil & Chalmers motor with 20 hp. Later, the creator repositioned the engine to a diminished place, placing it at the pilot. Santos-Dumont also replaced the former 20-hp motor by a 24-hp Antoniette and done some wing reinforcements. This version obtained the designation No. 20. Due to structural problems and continuing decreased power Santos-Dumont introduced additional alterations in Demoiselle’s design: a triangular and shortened fuselage made from bamboo; the motor had been relocated back into its initial place, as you’re watching wing; and enhanced wingspan. Santos-Dumont tested opposed-cylinder (he patented an answer for air conditioning this type of engine) and cooled-water machines, with power settings which range from 20 to 40 hp, in the two variants. An appealing feature associated with water-cooled variant had been the liquid-coolant pipeline which then followed the wing reduced side lofting to improve aerodynamics.

The Demoiselle aircraft might be built in just fifteen days. Having outstanding performance, quickly addressing 200 m of floor during preliminary flights and traveling at speeds in excess of 100 km/h, the Demoiselle had been the last plane built by Santos-Dumont. He accustomed perform flights because of the plane in Paris and some small trips to nearby places. Routes were continued at different times through 1909, such as the very first cross-country journey with steps of about 8 kilometer, from St. Cyr to Buc on September 13, going back these time, and another regarding the 17th, of 18 km in 16 min. The Demoiselle which was fitted with two-cylinder engine became rather preferred. The French WWI-ace Roland Garros travelled it during the Belmont Park, New York, in 1910. The Summer 1910 version for the Popular Mechanics mag published drawings regarding the Demoiselle and affirmed that Santos-Dumont’s plane ended up being better than some other that were created to that day, for people who want to reach results because of the least possible expenditure along with a minimum of experimenting. United states organizations marketed drawings and elements of Demoiselle for several years after that. Santos-Dumont ended up being therefore enthusiastic about aviation that he introduced the drawings of Demoiselle for free, thinking that aviation is the mainstream of a fresh prosperous period for mankind. Clément Bayard, an automotive maker, constructed a few products of Demoiselles, that has been sold for 50,000 Francs.

The style of Demoiselle clearly affected that of the Blériot XI airplane, that has been utilized for the British Channel crossing in 1909.

Controversy vis-a-vis Wright brothers
The claim to your first flying machine continues to be the arena for disputes about definitions, facts, and merits. These polemics tend to be fueled by powerful nationalistic or social emotions.

In some nations, particularly Brazil, Santos-Dumont is regarded as to be the creator regarding the aircraft, due to the official as well as general public personality for the 14-bis trip as well as some technical points. It has been traditionally the official position of the Brazilian government, especially since the Getúlio Vargas dictatorship. Vargas instituted a department within their government for "Information and Propaganda." This department created schoolbooks praising everything Brazilian; whenever Vargas dictatorship ended in 1945, the department-influenced schoolbooks endured.

The strongest technical critique for the Wrights’ very early aircraft is, even though it is clear that these aircraft could sustain managed flight, they always used some form of assist with be airborne. The help ranged in form from needing a stiff headwind, using launch rails, and/or the utilization of additional thrust (a catapult) to get the needed airspeed for launch. As a result, not one associated with Wrights’ early craft became popular under their power in relaxed wind from a regular floor area as ended up being accomplished by the routes of this 14-bis.

In a few other countries, especially the United States, the honor of first efficient heavier-than-air journey is most regularly assigned toward Wright brothers for their flight of 39 meters (120 feet) in 12 moments on December 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk in vermont. None the less, in these nations here continues to be a higher respect for Santos-Dumont’s accomplishments, and a recognition of this 14-bis trip as an important event at the beginning of aviation.

Supporters of Wrights’ claim highlight that use of floor rails specifically was necessitated by the Wrights’ chosen airfields — the sand at Kitty Hawk additionally the rough pasture at Huffman prairie — as opposed to the fairly smooth and fast parkland offered to Santos-Dumont and wasn’t an expression of every aerodyamic weakness in their design. Appropriately, the catapult used at Huffman Prairie allowed making use of a relatively quick surface train thus preventing the time-consuming drudgery of positioning a huge selection of foot of train required for launches without a catapult.

Supporters of Wright Flyer claim also point out that 1) although a rigid head wind had been needed, the plane moved under unique energy, unassisted by gravity; 2) the Wrights had been the first ever to develop efficient plane control, which made practical flight possible, even in breezy or windy problems which are typical, as well as in calm circumstances. They introduced far exceptional control systems well before all the other winged plane, including Santos-Dumont’s 14-bis; 3) the Wright Brothers accurately described a few maxims of journey (including aerodynamics and propeller design) that past pioneers had both explained inaccurately or perhaps not after all; 4) the trip has been reproduced experimentally utilizing a painstakingly recreated reproduction associated with original plane.

It really is this final point, the construction of replicas of the initial Wright Flyer, that increased the conflict in recent years. Some of these replicas were customized utilizing contemporary aerodynamic knowledge to enhance their particular trip faculties. But one successful replica ended up being built without getting therefore changed. The Wright Enjoy, through painstaking research of initial papers, photographs, and artifacts through the initial Flyer (performed just like an archaeological journey), is known to possess precisely and properly recreate it. This task had the stated intent behind building a precise reproduction regarding the initial plane, if it can really fly. Since it turned out, the aircraft did indeed make a few effective flights.

Much of the conflict for Santos-Dumont vs. the Wrights arose from difference between their methods to promotion. Santos-Dumont made their routes in public, usually followed by a lot of fanfare. In contrast, the Wright Brothers were really concerned with safeguarding their intellectual home making their early flights in remote locations and without many intercontinental aviation officials present. The protection of their flight has also been complicated by the jealousies of other US aviation enthusiasts and disputes over patents. In November 1905, the Aero Club of France discovered of this Wrights’ alleged journey of 24 miles. They sent a correspondent to analyze the Wrights’ records. In January 1906, people when you look at the Aero Club of France’s meeting were stunned because of the reports associated with the Wrights’ flights. Archdeacon delivered a taunting page into the Wrights, demanding they started to France and show on their own, although Wrights did not respond. Therefore, the aviation globe (that Paris had been the middle at the time) witnessed the merchandise of Santos-Dumont’s work first-hand. Because of this, numerous people, French alongside Europeans, dismissed the Wrights as frauds (like numerous others at the time) and assigned Santos-Dumont the accolade associated with "first to travel."

Regardless, early reports of Wrights’ activities and disclosure of crucial design features in their 1904 European patent filings definitely helped many plane developers in succeeding years, including Santos-Dumont. Furthermore, Santos-Dumont’s success was aided by improvements in motor power/weight proportion also improvements in materials and building methods that had taken place in past years.

There have been many devices that got up into the air in a small fashion and several variations of heavier-than-air titles to which varying amounts of credit being awarded by various groups. For instance, inside previous USSR Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski may also be paid as a "Father of Aviation", for their powered heavier-than-air machine going airborne (generally speaking seen as the second these types of flight because category) in 1884. The conflicts about the correct definition of "powered heavier-than-air flight" nevertheless go on. Like, pertaining to gliders fitted with tiny machines being utilized non-continuously; these debates never increase to types of take off methods. The problem of assisted takeoff are a concern with very early flights, however, since any help provided is much more significant for how long they were airborne for short flights.

In the same way some request to broaden the accomplishments of the 14-bis flights, there are certainly others just who seek to narrow all of them, even though this is less frequent. One critique is the fact that the low-altitude of which the 14-bis flew permitted the raise to-be augmented by ground-effect. The usually reduced flights of many aviation pioneers, including some of the Wrights preliminary flights, fall victim to a complex discussion over classifications of devices which can be assisted by this occurrence.

Additionally, there has been some concerns associated with the Aero-Club De France’s dispute of great interest concerning their participation with Santos-Dumont’s claim. The questions mainly arise from their partial familiarity with the Wrights and their involvement with Santos-Dumont.

Santos-Dumont as well as the wristwatch
The wristwatch had been invented by Patek Philippe, decades early in the day, but Santos-Dumont played an important role popularizing its use by men during the early 1900s. Before him these people were usually worn only by females, as men preferred pocket watches. As a result, Brazilians think about Santos-Dumont the creator for the wristwatch for males.

The story goes that in 1904, while celebrating his winning associated with Deutsch reward at Maxim’s Restaurant, Santos-Dumont complained to his friend Louis Cartier in regards to the trouble of checking his pocket view to occasion his performance during trip. Santos-Dumont then requested Cartier to come up with an alternate that could enable him maintain your hands regarding settings. Cartier visited work with the situation and also the result was a watch with a leather musical organization and a tiny buckle, to-be worn on wrist.

Santos-Dumont never ever became popular again without his personal Cartier wristwatch, and then he used it to check on his private record for a 220 m (722 ft) journey, attained in twenty-one seconds, on November 12, 1906. The Santos-Dumont view ended up being formally presented on October 20, 1979 at Paris Air Museum next to the 1908 Demoiselle, the last plane he built.

Cartier these days has a collection of wristwatches honouring Santos-Dumont labeled as Santos de Cartier.

Old age
Santos-Dumont continued to create and travel airplanes. His final flight as a pilot was made in Demoiselle on January 4, 1910. The journey ended in an accident, nevertheless cause ended up being never ever completely clear. There have been couple of observers and no reporters on the scene.

Santos-Dumont dropped really ill a few months later on. He experienced dual vision and vertigo that made it impossible for him to operate a vehicle, notably less fly. He had been diagnosed with several sclerosis. He suddenly dismissed their staff and sealed their workshop. His disease soon generated a deepening depression.

In 1911, Santos-Dumont relocated from Paris to your French seaside town of Bénerville in which he used astronomy as a spare time activity. A few of the local people, whom understood bit of their great popularity and exploits in Paris just a couple years earlier, mistook their German-made telescope and uncommon accent as signs (most likely false) which he had been a German spy who was monitoring French naval task. These suspicions fundamentally resulted in Santos-Dumont having his rooms searched by the French military police. Upset by ignominy of the charge, also depressed from his infection, he burned most of his papers, programs, and notes. Thus, discover small direct information available about his designs today.

In 1928 (some resources report, 1916) he left France to go back to their nation of beginning, not to come back to European countries. Their come back to Brazil had been marred by tragedy. Twelve people in the Brazilian scientific neighborhood boarded a seaplane using purpose of paying a flying welcome to the going back aviator on Cap Arcona. Rather, the seaplane crashed using losing all up to speed. Losing deepened Santos-Dumont’s developing despondency.

In Brazil, Santos-Dumont bought a little good deal privately of a mountain when you look at the city of Petrópolis, within the mountains near Rio de Janeiro, and built a little house truth be told there filled with imaginative technical gadgetry.

Debate with regards to personal life
Some conflict exists over Santos-Dumont’s exclusive life, particularly their sexual direction. Although he was an energetic member of the Paris social scene, there are no reports, community or exclusive, of their having been romatically associated with any person. It has led some to take a position that Santos-Dumont had been a homosexual. However, historians have actually mentioned that any event, with either a person or a female, would have been impractical to hold a secret given Santos-Dumont’s notoriety inside the time. This decreased any proof intimate entanglements have led some to speculate he was asexual.

Historians have actually noted that both Wright brothers, around whom a great deal controversy nevertheless exists vis-a-vis Santos-Dumont, in addition had personal everyday lives apparently without any overt sex. But no similar suggestions of feasible homosexuality have been made about them.

Santos-Dumond performed seem to have a specific affection for a married Cuban/American girl known as Aída de Acosta. He permitted the girl to travel his #9 airship (hence she likely became initial girl to pilot a powered plane.) and then he kept a photo of this lady on their work desk until his death.

Demise and beyond
Alberto Santos-Dumont — really sick, and said to be depressed over his several sclerosis in addition to using aircraft in warfare — is known having committed committing suicide by holding himself in the city of Guarujá in São Paulo, on July 23, 1932. He was hidden within the Cemitério São João Batista in Rio de Janeiro. There are numerous monuments to their work and his home in Petropolis, Brazil is currently a museum. He never married nor had any known kiddies.

Cultural influences
Santos-Dumont is a little lunar influence crater that lies in the northern end for the Montes Apenninus range within east side of the Mare Imbrium

The aviator gives their name to your city of Santos Dumont, into the condition of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Inside municipality is situated the Cabangu farm, in which he had been born. The Faculdades Santos Dumont is several exclusive greater discovering universities in the same town.

The city of Dumont, when you look at the state of São Paulo, near Ribeirão Preto is indeed called because it is found in which it once was one the largest coffee farms on earth, between 1870 and 1890. The farm was owned by Alberto Santos-Dumont’s daddy, a wealthy professional of French descent. It was sold in 1896 to a British business, the Dumont Coffee business.

The airport for domestic routes of Rio de Janeiro can be named after him (Santos Dumont Regional Airport)

The Rodovia Santos Dumont is a highway in the state of São Paulo.

The Brazilian Air power (Command of Aeronautics) concedes to crucial characters in the world of aviation the Santos Dumont Medal of Merit. Hawaii federal government of Minas Gerais has the same medal.

Réseau Santos-Dumont is the title of a cooperative institution network between France and Brazil, instituted by the French and Brazilian Ministries of Education in 1994, with 26 universities in each nation.

The American workplace of Naval Research of hillcrest, California features called certainly one of its analysis airships because the 600B Santos-Dumont.

The Historic and Cultural Institute of Aeronautics of Brazil has actually instituted the Santos Dumont Annual Prize of Journalism into the most useful reports in media about aeronautics.

Santos-Dumont functions as the inspiration and namesake for a little Coffee and Ice Cream Shop in Milford, New Hampshire.

Lycée Polyvalente Santos-Dumont is a lyceum in Saint-Cloud, France;

Thousands of streets, avenues, plazas, schools, monuments, etc., focus on the nationwide hero in Brazil.

From Bankrolling Casino ‘Wall Street’ to Bankrupting (virtually) Themselves
free annual credit history
Image by Canadian Pacific
It really is an instance of "shame on me personally," or perhaps "serve me right" for thinking too highly of myself.

I was really skeptical about the big American banks’ astronomical earnings in the early 2000s, and believed to myself those massive earnings make no sense and "i am maybe not placing money into their shares."

But after the housing/ banking/ credit crisis started in 2007, lender shares started a free-fall. By 2008, Citigroup shares choose to go down by over 50per cent from their pre-crisis highs. I thought my determination had paid off also it was a great time to get in. We began putting money into Citi shares. Really, as they say in the financial investment jargon, "bottom-fishing" is much like "catching a falling knife." If you’re perhaps not mindful, anticipate to get bloodied!

And boyd performed I previously drop huge on Citi?! After a 1-for-10 share consolidation (for example. reverse stock split) in-may 2011, my 450 shares became 45 stocks today, worth USD ,931 as of 2013-01-25, and I also’ve suffered a 83.5% loss.

A shareholder class-action lawsuit was released against Citigroup’s management over their mis-representation on number of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) the financial institution was subjected to. Citigroup decided to spend money of USD 0-million into the shareholders whom acquired Citigroup shares between 2007-02-26 and 2008-07-17. Evidently i am one of the investors contained in the settlement.

With countless shares outstanding and thousands of investors impacted and included in the settlement, I anticipate i might receive USD in compensation, easily’m happy!

The stock exchange is definitely some a gamble, therefore I knew the return might be good or unfavorable. That component I’m fine, it is the fact not one regarding the unscrupulous bank CEOs have ever before been recharged for fraud which makes me personally angry. Worse nonetheless, when they are let go, they nevertheless receives a commission enourmous amount in exit pay and stay really opulent life.

The settlement estimates that for every single qualified shareholder, they are able to expect most likely a payout of 19 dollars (USD) per share which they had.

Quite a tutorial in my situation eh?

Nice Equifax photos

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Take a look at these equifax pictures:

Handy Equifax
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< img alt="equifax"src ="https://www.free-credit-report.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/3249909018_7531396cfb.jpg"width ="400"/ > Photo by mrkag I chose to obtain my annual cost-free credit rating record from Equifax, however I could not remember my password from in 2015. After getting in some details, I was asked the above question